What Exactly Are Teratogens and just how Will They Affect Pregnancy

 

Teratogens and Teratogenicity

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Teratogenicity Pregnancy Stages and Development of Fetus, Defects and cases

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Teratogenic drugs

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Development: 4. 2 Prenatal Development: Teratogens

Video taken from the channel: Dr. Kristin Atchison


 

Teratogenic Causes of Birth Defects

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TERATOGENIC DRUGS AND THEIR EFFECT IN FOETUS | GPAT | NIPER | PHARMACIST

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Teratogens

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A teratogen is any agent that causes abnormalities when a developing baby is exposed to it during the mother’s pregnancy. These environmental exposures can cause birth defects and other problems. Teratogens can have effects that range from mild to severe, and they are often most dangerous during early pregnancy and with excessive or prolonged exposure. Teratogens are substances that may produce physical or functional defects in the human embryo or fetus after the pregnant woman is exposed to the substance.

Alcohol and cocaine are examples of such substances. Exposure to the teratogen affects the fetus or embryo in a variety of ways, such as the duration of exposure, the amount of teratogenic substance, and. Teratogens are any type of drug, chemical or some infections that will cause an embryo to develop abnormally. Since there are so many things that are considered teratogens, the only way to protect your unborn child is to avoid them all together.

Experts have had a hard time pinpointing when, where and who these teratogens will affect. “A teratogen is an agent, which can cause a birth defect. It is usually something in the environment that the mother may be exposed to during her pregnancy. It could be a prescribed medication, a street drug, alcohol use, or a disease present in the mother, which could increase the chance for the baby to be born with a birth defect.”. A teratogen (ter-AT-uh-jen) is something that can cause or raise the risk for a birth defect in a baby.

They are things that a mother may be exposed to during her pregnancy. Teratogens can cause severe birth defects, malformations, or terminate the pregnancy altogether (Jancárková, & Gregor, 2000). The placenta is known as an effective barrier from any detrimental pathogen that can potentially hurt the fetus. Teratogens are environmental factors that result in permanent structural or functional malformations or death of the embryo or fetus. Many congenital malformations are of unknown origin, but known teratogens include drugs, maternal illnesses and infections, metal toxicity, and physical agents (e.g., radiation).

Teratogen: Any agent that can disturb the development of an embryo or fetus. Teratogens may cause a birth defect in the child. Or a teratogen may halt the pregnancy outright. The classes of teratogens include radiation, maternal infections, chemicals, and drugs. Teratogens are environmental factors that can contribute to birth defects, and include some maternal diseases, pollutants, drugs and alcohol.

Factors influencing prenatal risks: There are several considerations in determining the type and amount of damage that might result from exposure to a particular teratogen (Berger, 2005). A teratogen is an agent, which can cause a birth defect. It is usually something in the environment that the mother may be exposed to during her pregnancy.

It could be a prescribed medication, a street drug, alcohol use, or a disease present in the mother which could increase the chance for the baby to be born with a birth defect.

List of related literature:

Teratogens” are agents that cause anatomical deformities in the fetus; they include viruses, drugs, other chemicals, infectious diseases, and radiation such as X rays.

“Human Anatomy' 2007 Ed.2007 Edition” by Kenneth S. Saladin
from Human Anatomy’ 2007 Ed.2007 Edition
by Kenneth S. Saladin
TPB, 2008

Teratogens Teratogens are agents in the fetal environment that either cause or increase the likelihood that a birth defect will occur.

“Foundations of Maternal-Newborn and Women's Health Nursing” by Sharon Smith Murray, MSN, RN, C, Emily Slone McKinney, MSN, RN, C
from Foundations of Maternal-Newborn and Women’s Health Nursing
by Sharon Smith Murray, MSN, RN, C, Emily Slone McKinney, MSN, RN, C
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2013

Teratogens are especially damaging during the embryonic stage, because it is a critical period in prenatal development, a time when certain kinds of growth must occur if the infant’s development is to proceed normally.

“Psychology: Australia and New Zealand” by Douglas A. Bernstein, Julie Ann Pooley, Lynne Cohen, Bethanie Gouldthorp, Stephen C. Provost, Jacquelyn Cranney, Louis A. Penner, Alison Clarke-Stewart, Edward J. Roy
from Psychology: Australia and New Zealand
by Douglas A. Bernstein, Julie Ann Pooley, et. al.
Cengage Learning Australia, 2017

Teratogens are agents in the fetal environment that either cause or increase the likelihood that a birth defect will occur.

“Foundations of Maternal-Newborn and Women's Health Nursing E-Book” by Sharon Smith Murray, Emily Slone McKinney
from Foundations of Maternal-Newborn and Women’s Health Nursing E-Book
by Sharon Smith Murray, Emily Slone McKinney
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2017

Some drugs known as teratogens will cause the abnormal development of key tissues (i.e., birth defects) if they are taken at a certain time during pregnancy (Table 3.5).

“Clayton's Basic Pharmacology for Nurses” by Michelle Willihnganz, Samuel L Gurevitz, Bruce D Clayton
from Clayton’s Basic Pharmacology for Nurses
by Michelle Willihnganz, Samuel L Gurevitz, Bruce D Clayton
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2019

The two specific teratogens identified and studied are anagyrine, a quinolizidine alkaloid, and ammodendrine, a piperadine alkaloid, both of which reduce uterine motility.

“Large Animal Internal Medicine E-Book” by Bradford P. Smith, David C Van Metre, Nicola Pusterla
from Large Animal Internal Medicine E-Book
by Bradford P. Smith, David C Van Metre, Nicola Pusterla
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2019

Teratogens are substances that cause birth defects, diseases, or abnormalities in the embryo or fetus either by disturbing maternal homeostasis or by acting directly on the fetus.

“The New Public Health” by Theodore H. Tulchinsky, Elena A. Varavikova
from The New Public Health
by Theodore H. Tulchinsky, Elena A. Varavikova
Elsevier Science, 2014

They adversely affect the fetal renal system, causing anuria (lack of urine) and oligohydramnios (low amniotic fluid volume).

“Encyclopedia of Women's Health” by Sana Loue, Martha Sajatovic
from Encyclopedia of Women’s Health
by Sana Loue, Martha Sajatovic
Springer US, 2004

Various environmental influences (teratogens) such as drugs, alcohol, viruses, and dietary deficiencies can damage the embryo or fetus early in pregnancy.

“Essential Concepts for Healthy Living” by Sandra Alters, Wendy Schiff
from Essential Concepts for Healthy Living
by Sandra Alters, Wendy Schiff
Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2005

Teratogens act directly on the developing organism or indirectly, affecting such supplemental structures as the placenta or some maternal system.

“Mosby's Medical Dictionary E-Book” by Mosby
from Mosby’s Medical Dictionary E-Book
by Mosby
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2013

Oktay Kutluk

Kutluk Oktay, MD, FACOG is one of the world's foremost experts in fertility preservation as well as ovarian stimulation and in vitro fertilization for infertility treatments. He developed and performed the world's first ovarian transplantation procedures as well as pioneered new ovarian stimulation protocols for embryo and oocyte freezing for breast and endometrial cancer patients.

Mail: [email protected]
Telephone: +1 (877) 492-3666

Biography: https://medicine.yale.edu/profile/kutluk_oktay/
Bibliography: oktay_bibliography

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