Rubella While Pregnant and Miscarriage

 

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For women who are not immune, rubella infection during pregnancy poses a high risk of congenital birth defects and miscarriage or stillbirth. According to the March of Dimes, infection during the first trimester carries an 85% risk of birth defects. Infection from weeks 13 through 16 of pregnancy brings a 54% risk of defects, and infection at the end of the second trimester. Pregnant women who contract rubella are at risk for miscarriage or stillbirth, and their developing babies are at risk for severe birth defects with devastating, lifelong consequences.

CRS can affect almost everything in the developing baby’s body. The most common birth defects from CRS can include: Deafness. Cataracts. A rubella infection can cause miscarriage, preterm birth, or stillbirth, as well as a variety of birth defects, but it depends on how far along you are when you contract the virus. The risks are highest during the early stages of a baby’s development and they go down as pregnancy.

Acquiring rubella (German measles) during pregnancy can cause miscarriage and other major problems, so women are encouraged to stay up to date on MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccinations as a way to decrease the risks. Rubella is only harmful to an unborn baby in the womb. If you get infected during pregnancy, rubella can cause serious problems for your baby. Rubella has been eliminated in the United States because of routine vaccination of children. Vaccination protects a person against rubella for.

The rubella virus is able to cross the placenta and is most dangerous early in pregnancy, when babies exposed to the virus are at risk of a condition called congenital rubella syndrome, characterized by eye defects, heart defects and mental retardation. The risk of miscarriage or stillbirth also increases if a pregnant woman contracts rubella. the placenta of infected pregnant women; in the first trimester, rubella causes miscarriage or fetal death, or congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) could develop. In 1941, an Australian ophthalmologist, Norman McAlister Gregg, established the relationship between congenital defects and rubella during pregnancy, thus demonstrating the teratogenic potential of the rubella virus.

1 Rubella easily crosses the placenta of infected pregnant women; in the first trimester, rubella causes miscarriage or fetal death, or congenital rubella. The most serious complication from rubella infection is the harm it can cause a pregnant woman’s developing baby. If an unvaccinated pregnant woman gets infected with rubella virus she can have a miscarriage, or her baby can die just after birth. Also, she can pass the virus to her developing baby who can develop serious birth defects such as—. But if you get it when you’re pregnant, rubella could harm your baby.

It can cause: loss of the baby (miscarriage) serious problems after the baby is born – such as problems with their sight, hearing, heart, or brain; The risk is highest if you get rubella early in pregnancy. There’s not thought to be a risk to your baby if you get rubella after week 20 of your pregnancy.

List of related literature:

In pregnant women, rubella can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, and congenital defects, especially if the disease occurs during the first trimester.

“Lehne’s Pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice Nurses and Physician Assistants E-Book” by Laura Rosenthal, Jacqueline Burchum
from Lehne’s Pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice Nurses and Physician Assistants E-Book
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Elsevier Health Sciences, 2017

If primary maternal rubella infection occurs during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, there is an estimated 61% risk of congenital defects (ophthalmologic, cardiac, auditory, or neurologic); the risk is 26% if maternal infection occurs in the second trimester.

“Burns' Pediatric Primary Care E-Book” by Dawn Lee Garzon Maaks, Nancy Barber Starr, Margaret A. Brady, Nan M. Gaylord, Martha Driessnack, Karen Duderstadt
from Burns’ Pediatric Primary Care E-Book
by Dawn Lee Garzon Maaks, Nancy Barber Starr, et. al.
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The most important consequences of rubella are the miscarriages, stillbirths, fetal anomalies, and therapeutic abortions that result when rubella infection occurs during early pregnancy, especially during the first trimester.

“Clinical Dermatology E-Book” by Thomas P. Habif
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The symptoms of rubella may cause the mother to think she has a minor viral infection, but rubella during the first trimester may cause improper fetal development of the ears, eyes, and heart and deafness.

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Although rubella itself is a relatively mild infection, it causes real problems if pregnant woman become infected in the first trimester of pregnancy, when congenital rubella syndrome can cause serious damage to the fetus.

“Mims' Medical Microbiology” by Richard Goering, Hazel Dockrell, Mark Zuckerman, Ivan Roitt, Peter L. Chiodini
from Mims’ Medical Microbiology
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Elsevier Health Sciences UK, 2012

The most significant consequence of rubella infection occurs among pregnant women who are at increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and fetal anomalies when rubella infection occurs early in gestation, particularly during the first trimester.

“Public Health and Infectious Diseases” by Davidson H. Hamer, Jeffrey Griffiths, James H. Maguire, Kristian Heggenhougen, Stella R. Quah
from Public Health and Infectious Diseases
by Davidson H. Hamer, Jeffrey Griffiths, et. al.
Elsevier Science, 2010

The risk of congenital infection after maternal rubella virus infection depends on the stage of pregnancy when maternal infection occurs; multiple severe defects are inevitable when infection occurs during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy.

“Medical Microbiology and Infection” by Tom Elliott, Anna Casey, Peter A. Lambert, Jonathan Sandoe
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by Tom Elliott, Anna Casey, et. al.
Wiley, 2012

The most devastating effect of rubella is on the fetus, if infection occurs in pregnant women during first trimester and early second trimester.

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A rubella infection during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, can result in miscarriage, stillbirths, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS).

“Drugs During Pregnancy and Lactation: Treatment Options and Risk Assessment” by Christof Schaefer, Paul W.J. Peters, Richard K Miller
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by Christof Schaefer, Paul W.J. Peters, Richard K Miller
Elsevier Science, 2014

If a woman is not immune and becomes infected during pregnancy (first trimester), the rubella virus could cause birth defects in the fetus.

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Oktay Kutluk

Kutluk Oktay, MD, FACOG is one of the world's foremost experts in fertility preservation as well as ovarian stimulation and in vitro fertilization for infertility treatments. He developed and performed the world's first ovarian transplantation procedures as well as pioneered new ovarian stimulation protocols for embryo and oocyte freezing for breast and endometrial cancer patients.

Mail: [email protected]
Telephone: +1 (877) 492-3666

Biography: https://medicine.yale.edu/profile/kutluk_oktay/
Bibliography: oktay_bibliography

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2 comments

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  • I want to take rubella vaccine before pregnancy. But my doctor are suggest u test your blood first n then if your blood test are normal then you take this vaccine. What are u say is it right?

  • Had rubella igg value 126,and i was planning for pregnancy after 2 months as per my doctor’s advise. she given me torchnil capsules for 2 months 3 tablet pr day
    Is it OK? Or I need some vaccines and all