Maternal Mortality Rate, Causes, and Prevention

 

Maternal Morbidity and Mortality: What Do We Know? How Are We Addressing It?

Video taken from the channel: DPCPSI


 

Meeting the Challenges of Measuring and Preventing Maternal Mortality in the United States

Video taken from the channel: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)


 

Maternal Mortality

Video taken from the channel: American Heart Association


 

Preventing maternal mortality: It’s ok to ask

Video taken from the channel: Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow


 

Maternal Mortality

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Video taken from the channel: simpleshow foundation


 

Preventing Maternal Deaths in the U.S.

Video taken from the channel: The Doctors Company


 

Maternal Mortality Causes and its Factors

Video taken from the channel: MediConcepts


Cardiac disease and stroke are the leading causes of maternal death. Though it’s not surprising that heart complications surface during pregnancy (blood volume increases 30% to 50% to support. Maternal Mortality Review Information Application; Data Brief From 14 U.S. Maternal Mortality Review Committees, 2008-2017; Preventing Pregnancy-Related Deaths plus icon.

Infographic: Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Pregnancy-Related Deaths — United States, 2007–2016; Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System; Maternal. All of the information obtained is summarized, and medically trained epidemiologists determine the cause and time of death related to the pregnancy. Causes of death are coded by using a system established in 1986 by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Maternal Mortality.

Maternal Mortality –Causes, Risk Factors and Prevention Community Medicine 15,176 Views Maternal mortality is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of duration and site of pregnancy from any cause related or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management and. Because it is ascertained using both birth and death certificate data abstracted and analyzed by medical epidemiologists, the PRD rate is a far more accurate estimate of true US maternal mortality than the MMR. 4 The CDC reports that the US pregnancy-related mortality ratio has increased from 7.2 deaths per. Leading causes of death were complications of preeclampsia, pulmonary thromboembolism, amniotic fluid embolism, obstetric hemorrhage, and cardiac disease.

Only 1 death was seen from placenta accreta. Twenty-seven deaths (28%) were deemed preventable (17 by actions of health care personnel. The infant mortality rate is the number of infant deaths for every 1,000 live births. In addition to giving us key information about maternal and infant health, the infant mortality rate is an important marker of the overall health of a society. In 2017, the infant mortality rate in the United States was 5.8 deaths.

Vital Signs: Pregnancy-Related Deaths, United States, 2011–2015, and Strategies for Prevention, 13 States, 2013–2017, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) Pregnancy-related Deaths Severe Maternal Morbidity in the United States. Since 1987, the rate of pregnancy-related deaths in the U.S. has more than doubled. Non-Hispanic Black and American Indian/Alaskan Native women are significantly more likely to die from pregnancy related causes than non-Hispanic White women. Source: Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mortality rates for new moms are lower in Washington state than most other states.

A USA Today investigation about maternal deaths found that Washington’s rate is 13.8 deaths for every 100,000 births, below the national average. They identify Louisiana as the state with the highest death rate, at.

List of related literature:

Clinical factors that contributed to the higher risk for maternal mortality in this time interval included increases in maternal age and obesity, rises in cesarean rates, and obstetric hemorrhage.

“Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice E-Book” by Robert Resnik, Charles J. Lockwood, Thomas Moore, Michael F Greene, Joshua Copel, Robert M Silver
from Creasy and Resnik’s Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice E-Book
by Robert Resnik, Charles J. Lockwood, et. al.
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2018

However, it is likely the incidence of maternal death is increasing as a result of an increase in maternal age, obesity, births by cesarean delivery, and prepregnancy comorbid conditions.

“Miller's Anesthesia, 2-Volume Set E-Book” by Michael A. Gropper, Ronald D. Miller, Lars I. Eriksson, Lee A Fleisher, Jeanine P. Wiener-Kronish, Neal H Cohen, Kate Leslie
from Miller’s Anesthesia, 2-Volume Set E-Book
by Michael A. Gropper, Ronald D. Miller, et. al.
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2019

Clinical factors that contributed to the higher risk for maternal mortality in this time interval included increases in maternal age and obesity, a 50% rise in cesarean rate, a 40% rise in occurrence of obstetric hemorrhage, and a 100% rise in obstetric interventions such as inductions.

“Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice” by Robert Resnik, MD, Robert K. Creasy, MD, Jay D. Iams, MD, Charles J. Lockwood, MD, MHCM, Thomas Moore, MD, Michael F Greene, MD
from Creasy and Resnik’s Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice
by Robert Resnik, MD, Robert K. Creasy, MD, et. al.
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2013

Among the important indirect factors affecting the risk of maternal and perinatal mortality are the woman’s age and parity (i:e:, number of previous births), and the length of her birth intervals.

“The Demography and Epidemiology of Human Health and Aging” by Jacob S. Siegel, S. Jay Olshansky
from The Demography and Epidemiology of Human Health and Aging
by Jacob S. Siegel, S. Jay Olshansky
Springer Netherlands, 2011

Higher parity and advancing age increase the risk of maternal death.

“Llewellyn-Jones Fundamentals of Obstetrics and Gynaecology E-Book” by Jeremy J N Oats, Suzanne Abraham
from Llewellyn-Jones Fundamentals of Obstetrics and Gynaecology E-Book
by Jeremy J N Oats, Suzanne Abraham
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2015

Both younger and older mothers are more likely to have adverse birth outcomes that increase the risk of infant mortality, including preterm birth and low birthweight.

“Handbook of Population” by Dudley L. Poston Jr.
from Handbook of Population
by Dudley L. Poston Jr.
Springer International Publishing, 2019

In most high-income countries, maternal mortality is now low, but other aspects of maternal health are reasons for concern.

“Encyclopedia of Epidemiology” by Sarah Boslaugh, Louise-Anne McNutt
from Encyclopedia of Epidemiology
by Sarah Boslaugh, Louise-Anne McNutt
SAGE Publications, 2008

These considerations lead to the conclusion that, in order to reduce maternal deaths significantly in lowand middle-income countries, an emphasis on reducing overall fertility levels and the frequency of high-risk pregnancies is unlikely to be sufficient.

“International Public Health: Diseases, Programs, Systems, and Policies” by Michael H. Merson, Robert E. Black, Anne Mills
from International Public Health: Diseases, Programs, Systems, and Policies
by Michael H. Merson, Robert E. Black, Anne Mills
Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2005

• Maternal mortality rate reflects healthcare access and socioeconomic factors; it includes maternal deaths resulting from causes associated with pregnancy and puerperium (during and after childbirth).

“Epidemiology for Public Health Practice” by Robert H. Friis, Thomas A. Sellers
from Epidemiology for Public Health Practice
by Robert H. Friis, Thomas A. Sellers
Jones and Bartlett, 2004

mortality rates are prematurity and low birth weight, birth defects, maternal complications, sudden infant death syndrome, and injuries (Statista, 2018).

“Foundations and Adult Health Nursing E-Book” by Kim Cooper, Kelly Gosnell
from Foundations and Adult Health Nursing E-Book
by Kim Cooper, Kelly Gosnell
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2018

Oktay Kutluk

Kutluk Oktay, MD, FACOG is one of the world's foremost experts in fertility preservation as well as ovarian stimulation and in vitro fertilization for infertility treatments. He developed and performed the world's first ovarian transplantation procedures as well as pioneered new ovarian stimulation protocols for embryo and oocyte freezing for breast and endometrial cancer patients.

Mail: [email protected]
Telephone: +1 (877) 492-3666

Biography: https://medicine.yale.edu/profile/kutluk_oktay/
Bibliography: oktay_bibliography

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2 comments

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  • This problem is due to not take care of yourself, going the wrong doctors for getting proper healthcare, and focus on being healthy before thinking about getting pregnant and having children. This problem can be avoided is women do what I suggest because I do not have to be a doctor to know about this. Even I was, I would say the same thing as I am saying here.

  • SO WHERE are all those vagina hat wearers & women’s marchers on this issue? Or is it only important when it effects mainly white women???