Ecological Influences on Prenatal Development

 

Environmental Influences (Pregnancy)

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How the environment affects fertility, pregnancy, and childhood development

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Genes & Environment in Prenatal development | Developmental Psychology

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3.2 Prenatal Environmental Influences & Newborns

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2282 Genetic and Environmental Influences on Pre natal Development

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2.3 Influences on Prenatal Development

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Environmental Influences on Prenatal Development

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During prenatal development, environmental factors can significantly affect the development of the child. Most everything the mother ingests, including food, liquid, and even medication, travels through the placenta to the fetus; anything the mother is exposed to in the environment affects the fetus. One means for study of environmental influences on development consists of an examination into the causes of morphologic abnormalities. The book begins with some consideration of such defects.

This useful and interesting book consists of the proceedings of one of the Developmental Biology Conference Series held under the auspices of the. Prenatal Environmental Influences Teratogens. The scientific study of congenital abnormalities caused by prenatal environmental influences is known as Drugs. Chemicals (over-the-counter and prescribed pharmaceuticals as well as illegal substances) can cause a wide range Smoking and Nicotine. Environmental Pollution Mercury, lead, and dioxins are among the list of polluting chemicals that can impair prenatal development.

Infectious Disease most seem to have little impact, except for rubella, HIV, herpes, and toxoplasmosis. The environment can have an important influence on development, and this also includes the prenatal period. The growth that happens during the nine months of prenatal development is nothing short of astonishing, but this period is also a time of great vulnerability.

Prenatal Development: Environmental Influences (cont) •Maternal factors. –Nutrition and maternal weight. • Need 300 –500 more calories a day • Need extra protein • Weight gain of 25 –35 pounds less likely to have birth complications • Overweight before pregnancy. 2.2 In what ways do genes influence development? Development from Conception to Birth 2.3 What happens in each of the stages of prenatal development? 2.4 How do male and female fetuses differ? 2.8 How do maternal diseases and environmental hazards affect prenatal development?

2.8a How has technology changed the way that health professionals. During prenatal development, environmental factors can significantly affect the development of the child. Most everything the mother ingests, including food, liquid, and even medication, travels through the placenta to the fetus; anything the mother is exposed to in the environment affects the fetus. Environmental Influences on Child Development The prenatal environment: • The chemical balance of the mother’s body and the presence of conditions or potentially toxic substances that can alter development processes. • Examples are the mother’s use of drugs or alcohol, viral or bacterial diseases, and direct traumatic injury to the fetus. Research suggests that genetic, prenatal, endocrine, and parenting influences across development individually contribute to internalizing and externalizing problems in children.

The present study tests the combined contributions of genetic risk for psychopathology, prenatal environments.

List of related literature:

These influences are discussed in the chapter on prenatal development.

“Human Development” by D. A. Louw
from Human Development
by D. A. Louw
Kagiso Tertiary, 1998

Environmental influences include maternal malnutrition, irradiation during pregnancy, juvenile diabetes mellitus and fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS.

“Introduction to Special Education' 2007 Ed.” by Inciong, Et Al
from Introduction to Special Education’ 2007 Ed.
by Inciong, Et Al
Rex Book Store, 2007

Environmental Influences on Prenatal Development.

“Encyclopedia of Human Behavior” by Vilayanur S. Ramachandran
from Encyclopedia of Human Behavior
by Vilayanur S. Ramachandran
Elsevier Science, 2012

Prenatal and perinatal risk factors represent a host of latent and manifest conditions that influence subsequent development.

“Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice” by Institute of Medicine, National Research Council, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Committee on Law and Justice, Panel on Juvenile Crime: Prevention, Treatment, and Control, Nancy A. Crowell, Cathy Spatz Widom, Joan McCord
from Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice
by Institute of Medicine, National Research Council, et. al.
National Academies Press, 2001

Prenatal influences include all known genetic and metabolic anomalies; malformations during brain development; in utero exposure to toxins, teratogens, drugs, and alcohol; and exposure to maternal or placental infection.

“Contemporary Intellectual Assessment, Fourth Edition: Theories, Tests, and Issues” by Dawn P. Flanagan, Erin M. McDonough, Alan S. Kaufman
from Contemporary Intellectual Assessment, Fourth Edition: Theories, Tests, and Issues
by Dawn P. Flanagan, Erin M. McDonough, Alan S. Kaufman
Guilford Publications, 2018

The nutritional environment during embryonic, fetal, and neonatal development plays a very important role in the offspring’s risk of developing diseases later in life.

“Exercise and Sporting Activity During Pregnancy: Evidence-Based Guidelines” by Rita Santos-Rocha
from Exercise and Sporting Activity During Pregnancy: Evidence-Based Guidelines
by Rita Santos-Rocha
Springer International Publishing, 2018

Other environmental influences include prenatal exposure to thalidomide or valproic acid.

“The American Psychiatric Association Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, Seventh Edition” by Laura Weiss Roberts, M.D., M.A.
from The American Psychiatric Association Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry, Seventh Edition
by Laura Weiss Roberts, M.D., M.A.
American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2019

In addition to genetics, prenatal influences (e.g., maternal nutrition, stress, overall health), mode of delivery, early life nutrition (breastfeeding, formula feeding), physical and psychological environments, and antibiotic use all influence the infant gut microbiome.

“Lifestyle Psychiatry” by Douglas L. Noordsy, M.D.
from Lifestyle Psychiatry
by Douglas L. Noordsy, M.D.
American Psychiatric Association Publishing, 2019

For example, some research indicates that shared environmental influences play a more prominent role in substance use initiation, whereas genetic and unique environmental influences play a larger role on heavier/ problematic use in both adolescents and adults (Fowler et al., 2007).

“Child Psychopathology, Third Edition” by Eric J. Mash, Russell A. Barkley
from Child Psychopathology, Third Edition
by Eric J. Mash, Russell A. Barkley
Guilford Publications, 2014

Other prenatal factors that may affect fetal development include maternal malnutrition or substance abuse; exposure to mutagens such as radiation; maternal illnesses such as diabetes, toxemia, or rubella; and maternal abuse and neglect.

“Introductory Textbook of Psychiatry” by Donald W. Black, Nancy C. Andreasen
from Introductory Textbook of Psychiatry
by Donald W. Black, Nancy C. Andreasen
American Psychiatric Pub., 2011

Oktay Kutluk

Kutluk Oktay, MD, FACOG is one of the world's foremost experts in fertility preservation as well as ovarian stimulation and in vitro fertilization for infertility treatments. He developed and performed the world's first ovarian transplantation procedures as well as pioneered new ovarian stimulation protocols for embryo and oocyte freezing for breast and endometrial cancer patients.

Mail: [email protected]
Telephone: +1 (877) 492-3666

Biography: https://medicine.yale.edu/profile/kutluk_oktay/
Bibliography: oktay_bibliography

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