Using Norm-Referenced Tests for Learning Disabilities



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Norm Referenced Assessment

Video taken from the channel: Ann Webb


16.2 Standardized and Norm-referenced Assessment

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Norm-Referenced Scales

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Video taken from the channel: Ch 04: SAARASWAT [Social Science-II]


Criterion vs Norm Referenced Assessment: Examples & Evaluation

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Criterian and Norm Referenced

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Intelligence tests (often called IQ tests) most commonly used to diagnose a learning disability include the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WIPPSI), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Other common intelligence, or cognitive, tests include the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test, Differential Abilities Scales (DAS), the Woodcock Johnson Test. In the listening comprehension scale, the examiner reads a word, and the child is asked to point to the picture of the word. In the oral expression scale, the examiner asks the child to answer questions and complete sentences. Norm-referenced scoring is used.

Norm-referenced tests often use a multiple-choice format, though some include open-ended, short-answer questions. They are usually based on some form of national standards, not locally determined standards or curricula. IQ tests are among the most well-known norm-referenced tests, as are developmental-screening tests, which are used to identify learning disabilities. Learning Disability Test. In 5 minutes this online questionnaire will identify the possible cause of your child’s learning difficulties.

Your child does not need to be present to complete this questionnaire. After completion, we will identify if any learning disabilities are probable or merit further testing. The dangers of using norm-referenced tests Many mistakes can be made by relying on test scores to make educational decisions. Every major maker of NRTs tells schools not to use them as the basis for making decisions about retention, graduation or replacement.

The testmakers know that their tests are not good enough to use that way. Integration of response to intervention and norm-referenced tests in learning disability identification: Learning from the tower of Babel. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 807-825. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 807-825. When you receive criterion referenced tests’ results for your students, you can use these results to aid instruction for your students in the following ways: Offer more support in the subject area for your student.

For example, you can read material from the textbook in your class before he goes to the regular classroom. A. Norm-referenced tests determine what should be taught in physical education. B. Norm-referenced tests assist with making eligibility decisions. C. Norm-referenced tests identify appropriate placement.

D. All of the above are advantages of norm-referenced tests. When determining the presence of learning disabilities using the discrepancy standard, evaluators compare a student’s IQ and achievement scores. Woodcock (1990) described three types of discrepancies which include all of the following EXCEPT: a. Norm-referenced b. Aptitude-achievement c. Intracognitive d. Intra-achievement.

Much of the rationale for its use as an LD identification process stems from the dissatisfaction of many educators with the use of the IQ–achievement discrepancy model and the general use of standardized, norm-referenced tests that measure intelligence as well as underlying cognitive processes (e.g., processing speed, short-term/working memory, etc.).

List of related literature:

Why use norm referenced tests?

“Handbook of Psychology, Educational Psychology” by Donald K. Freedheim, Irving B. Weiner, Gloria J. Miller, William M. Reynolds, John A. Schinka, Wayne F. Velicer, Gloria E. Miller, Alice F. Healy, Robert W. Proctor
from Handbook of Psychology, Educational Psychology
by Donald K. Freedheim, Irving B. Weiner, et. al.
Wiley, 2003

Although norm-referenced tests can be very helpful in determining how one learner compares to a group, most norm-referenced tests are not based on individuals with disabilities.

“Inclusive Physical Activity: Promoting Health for a Lifetime” by Susan L. Kasser, Rebecca K. Lytle
from Inclusive Physical Activity: Promoting Health for a Lifetime
by Susan L. Kasser, Rebecca K. Lytle
Human Kinetics, 2013

Norm-referenced tests are often used for selection purposes.

“Measurement Theory and Applications for the Social Sciences” by Deborah L. Bandalos
from Measurement Theory and Applications for the Social Sciences
by Deborah L. Bandalos
Guilford Publications, 2018

Norm referenced test

“EDUCATION MCQ BOOK” by Narayan Changder
by Narayan Changder

Norm-referenced tests: Are they valid for use with handicapped students?

“Handbook of Psychological Assessment” by Gerald Goldstein, Michel Hersen
from Handbook of Psychological Assessment
by Gerald Goldstein, Michel Hersen
Elsevier Science, 2000

Norm-referenced tests have specific psychometric properties.

“Occupational Therapy for Children and Adolescents E-Book” by Jane Case-Smith, Jane Clifford O'Brien
from Occupational Therapy for Children and Adolescents E-Book
by Jane Case-Smith, Jane Clifford O’Brien
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2014

◆ Don’t use norm-referenced tests only.

“Introduction to Language Development, Second Edition” by Sandra Levey
from Introduction to Language Development, Second Edition
by Sandra Levey
Plural Publishing, Incorporated, 2017

• Write down your definitions of norm-referenced and criterion-referenced tests.

“Foundations of Psychological Testing: A Practical Approach” by Leslie A. Miller, Sandra A. McIntire, Robert L. Lovler
from Foundations of Psychological Testing: A Practical Approach
by Leslie A. Miller, Sandra A. McIntire, Robert L. Lovler
SAGE Publications, 2011

Give examples of norm-referenced and criterion-referenced testing in the school setting.

Prentice Hall India Pvt., Limited, 2016

Generally, norm-referenced tests are not appropriate in workplace learning and performance and should not be used to evaluate either the learners or the instruction if there are explicitly stated objectives (Reynolds, 1993).

“ASTD Handbook for Workplace Learning Professionals” by Elaine Biech
from ASTD Handbook for Workplace Learning Professionals
by Elaine Biech
ASTD Press, 2008

Oktay Kutluk

Kutluk Oktay, MD, FACOG is one of the world's foremost experts in fertility preservation as well as ovarian stimulation and in vitro fertilization for infertility treatments. He developed and performed the world's first ovarian transplantation procedures as well as pioneered new ovarian stimulation protocols for embryo and oocyte freezing for breast and endometrial cancer patients.

Mail: [email protected]
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