PLS 5 Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation
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Averaging Test Scores
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2. Secondary Interpretation of Test Scores
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The Elo Rating System for Chess and Beyond
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Do Standardized Tests Do More Harm Than Good?
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WFAS WORD TEST: SCORING FOR GRADE EQUIVALENT
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z-score Calculations & Percentiles in a Normal Distribution
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Therefore, the reliability for age-equivalent scores is much poorer for advanced test-takers (McCauley & Swisher, 1984). This is why so many assessments do not report age or grade equivalents beyond a specified age or grade level. “Because of the inherent psychometric problems associated with age and grade equivalents that seriously limit their reliability and validity, these scores should not be used for making diagnostic or placement decisions” (Bracken, 1988; Reynolds, 1981). That is, “as age increases, similar differences in age equivalent scores are the result of smaller and smaller differences in raw scores” (McCauley & Swisher, 1984, p. 34).
For example, a difference in AE scores of 3 months for a 4-year-old is more significant than a difference of 3 months for a 14-year-old. Speech-language evaluation reports from many institutions present age-equivalent scores as the evidence for speech-language deficits. Yet, the value and interpretation of this measurement criterion requires clinical scrutiny. The Use of Grade and Age Equivalent Scores in Educational Assessment. Limitations of grade and age equivalent scores in the educational assessment of handicapped students include unequal variance across content areas, grade and age groups, and encouragement of comparison with inappropriate groups.
The author recommends the use of expanded scale scores. The same year, Cecil Reynolds published this journal article on the fallacy of using grade equivalent scores two years below grade level as an indicator of a reading disorder (a common practice in many states at that time.).Fallacy of 2 years below grade level fro age (3) Despite the criticisms, demand for grade equivalents remains mysteriously high. Grade Equivalent scores, on the other hand, allow us to compare the total number of correct answers the average test taker got.
For example, an average 12-year old taking the 3 subtests that make up the Broad Math portion of the Woodcock Johnson-III Test of Achievement would need to get a total of 141 correct answers out of a total of 268. The reason the age-equivalent scores are not truly valid is that they do not take in to consideration the range of normal performance for children whose scores fall within the average range (Remember the 85-115 rule?) Also, these scores compare children to the “average X-year old”. Then to determine the equivalency score, we look at the child’s raw score and then at all the medians/means of the test scores and when we find that number, there will be a GE assigned to that score. Let me explain why this information is of extremely limited value.
Let’s say the whole test is based on naming the numbers 1-10. Test grade calculator how to use it? Our test score calculator is a straightforward and intuitive tool! Enter the number of questions/points/problems in the student’s work (test, quiz, exam anything).
Assume you’ve prepared the test with 18 questions. Type in the number the student got wrong. Instead if you prefer you can enter the.
List of related literature:
|from Essentials of Psychological Testing|
|from WAIS-IV Clinical Use and Interpretation: Scientist-Practitioner Perspectives|
|from Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences|
|from Item Response Theory|
|from The Psychiatric Mental Status Examination|
|from Handbook of Psychological Assessment|
|from Neuropsychological Evaluation of the Child: Domains, Methods, and Case Studies|
|from Sociolinguistic Patterns|
|from SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering|
|from Language Disorders from Infancy Through Adolescence E-Book: Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing, and Communicating|