The Issues As We Grow Older Equivalent Test Scores


PLS 5 Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation

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Averaging Test Scores

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2. Secondary Interpretation of Test Scores

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The Elo Rating System for Chess and Beyond

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Do Standardized Tests Do More Harm Than Good?

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z-score Calculations & Percentiles in a Normal Distribution

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Therefore, the reliability for age-equivalent scores is much poorer for advanced test-takers (McCauley & Swisher, 1984). This is why so many assessments do not report age or grade equivalents beyond a specified age or grade level. “Because of the inherent psychometric problems associated with age and grade equivalents that seriously limit their reliability and validity, these scores should not be used for making diagnostic or placement decisions” (Bracken, 1988; Reynolds, 1981). That is, “as age increases, similar differences in age equivalent scores are the result of smaller and smaller differences in raw scores” (McCauley & Swisher, 1984, p. 34).

For example, a difference in AE scores of 3 months for a 4-year-old is more significant than a difference of 3 months for a 14-year-old. Speech-language evaluation reports from many institutions present age-equivalent scores as the evidence for speech-language deficits. Yet, the value and interpretation of this measurement criterion requires clinical scrutiny. The Use of Grade and Age Equivalent Scores in Educational Assessment. Limitations of grade and age equivalent scores in the educational assessment of handicapped students include unequal variance across content areas, grade and age groups, and encouragement of comparison with inappropriate groups.

The author recommends the use of expanded scale scores. The same year, Cecil Reynolds published this journal article on the fallacy of using grade equivalent scores two years below grade level as an indicator of a reading disorder (a common practice in many states at that time.).Fallacy of 2 years below grade level fro age (3) Despite the criticisms, demand for grade equivalents remains mysteriously high. Grade Equivalent scores, on the other hand, allow us to compare the total number of correct answers the average test taker got.

For example, an average 12-year old taking the 3 subtests that make up the Broad Math portion of the Woodcock Johnson-III Test of Achievement would need to get a total of 141 correct answers out of a total of 268. The reason the age-equivalent scores are not truly valid is that they do not take in to consideration the range of normal performance for children whose scores fall within the average range (Remember the 85-115 rule?) Also, these scores compare children to the “average X-year old”. Then to determine the equivalency score, we look at the child’s raw score and then at all the medians/means of the test scores and when we find that number, there will be a GE assigned to that score. Let me explain why this information is of extremely limited value.

Let’s say the whole test is based on naming the numbers 1-10. Test grade calculator how to use it? Our test score calculator is a straightforward and intuitive tool! Enter the number of questions/points/problems in the student’s work (test, quiz, exam anything).

Assume you’ve prepared the test with 18 questions. Type in the number the student got wrong. Instead if you prefer you can enter the.

List of related literature:

However, several current tests still provide norms that are presented as age equivalent scores and are based on the average raw score performance of children of different age groups in the standardization sample.

“Essentials of Psychological Testing” by Susana Urbina
from Essentials of Psychological Testing
by Susana Urbina
Wiley, 2014

These questions are relevant to the clinical evaluation of older adults because the test scores may not have the same interpretation at different ages if the meanings are different for adults under and over 65 years of age.

“WAIS-IV Clinical Use and Interpretation: Scientist-Practitioner Perspectives” by Lawrence G. Weiss, Donald H. Saklofske, Diane Coalson, Susan Engi Raiford
from WAIS-IV Clinical Use and Interpretation: Scientist-Practitioner Perspectives
by Lawrence G. Weiss, Donald H. Saklofske, et. al.
Elsevier Science, 2010

In this case, low scores on age tended to go with high test time in seconds and low test times were more common in older children.

“Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences” by Jacob Cohen, Patricia Cohen, Stephen G. West, Leona S. Aiken
from Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences
by Jacob Cohen, Patricia Cohen, et. al.
Taylor & Francis, 2013

Classical total scores would not be linearly related to age if a single test were administered to all age levels.

“Item Response Theory” by Susan E. Embretson, Steven P. Reise
from Item Response Theory
by Susan E. Embretson, Steven P. Reise
Taylor & Francis, 2013

Education and age affect the scores on this test; thus there are separate normative scores for different age groups (see Table 6–7).

“The Psychiatric Mental Status Examination” by Paula T. Trzepacz, Robert W. Baker
from The Psychiatric Mental Status Examination
by Paula T. Trzepacz, Robert W. Baker
Oxford University Press, 1993

Most tests standardize scores within defined age groups.

“Handbook of Psychological Assessment” by Gerald Goldstein, Michel Hersen
from Handbook of Psychological Assessment
by Gerald Goldstein, Michel Hersen
Elsevier Science, 2000

Age-equivalent scores do not account for the developmental differences that reduce with increasing age and may be misinterpreted if not provided within an appropriate context.

“Neuropsychological Evaluation of the Child: Domains, Methods, and Case Studies” by Ida Sue Baron
from Neuropsychological Evaluation of the Child: Domains, Methods, and Case Studies
by Ida Sue Baron
Oxford University Press, 2018

If now we see that the difference in age levels is preserved in both class groups, it is still possible that it is due to the fact that the younger group hears better, or has more interest in the test, or shows less fatigue.

“Sociolinguistic Patterns” by William Labov
from Sociolinguistic Patterns
by William Labov
University of Pennsylvania Press, Incorporated, 1972

Example Reexamine the case of age versus test score examined earlier under the discussion of correlation.

“SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering” by Morgan J. Hurley, Daniel T. Gottuk, John R. Hall Jr., Kazunori Harada, Erica D. Kuligowski, Milosh Puchovsky, Jose ́ L. Torero, John M. Watts Jr., CHRISTOPHER J. WIECZOREK
from SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering
by Morgan J. Hurley, Daniel T. Gottuk, et. al.
Springer New York, 2015

Second, there are fundamental problems in using age-equivalent scores at all to determine whether a child’s score falls outside the normal range.

“Language Disorders from Infancy Through Adolescence E-Book: Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing, and Communicating” by Rhea Paul, Courtenay Norbury
from Language Disorders from Infancy Through Adolescence E-Book: Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing, and Communicating
by Rhea Paul, Courtenay Norbury
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2012

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Kutluk Oktay, MD, FACOG is one of the world's foremost experts in fertility preservation as well as ovarian stimulation and in vitro fertilization for infertility treatments. He developed and performed the world's first ovarian transplantation procedures as well as pioneered new ovarian stimulation protocols for embryo and oocyte freezing for breast and endometrial cancer patients.

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  • I’m from Taiwan and I’m in sixth grade. I have only taken one national test before in fifth grade which determines your language and math skill; but we have two big tests per semester. Teachers can assign tests too. I don’t think it’s too much, but I think tests doesn’t really mean anything in elementary school.

  • We Need To Also Ban GMAT GRE Test Exam Also Is Bullshit We Need The Social Democratic Party To Rule America For The 70 Years We Need To Have The Same Education System As In Finland We Need AOC For President

  • It’s already 4:43 am and I have an exam at exact 8:00 am. And now I am watching your video, thanks now I understand our lesson.55555555555

  • Is there any Italian here in the comments? Do we have standardized testing in Italy? We do have the exam at the end of high school but it’s not the same as the standardized tests they are talking about here are (i think…)

  • Korea doesn’t have more standardized tests, just more high stakes tests. I was a teacher there, and students usually 1-2 standardized tests per year. All other test (usually 1 midterm and one final each semester) are created by the teachers. So they are tests based on a standardized curriculum, but they are not standardized tests.

  • I went to one of the highest rated schools in the state. It’s been between 1st and 3rd, forever. I never understood this. There was nothing special about our school. I always felt the school was underperforming. If my school was one of the best, if not the very best, in the state… then what would a “worse” school look like? Anyways… I was just thinking about all the testing that we did. I think it was my sophomore year(?), we had standardize testing to do. We didn’t even have any prep for them. We weren’t told prior that it was coming up. It was just something we all of the sudden had to do. I don’t feel like this is “allowed”, but they would make you take them twice. Let’s say you get a C… well they want you to retake it and get a B, or an A. Those tests take SO long. I started my science test, only to find I’d never even heard of what they were asking. I had “normal” classes, so I have no idea where we were supposed to have known that from. I figured if I really didn’t know, and regardless I’d have to retake it anyhow… that I wasn’t going to waste the time testing. I clicked through the whole thing. I’m pretty sure I selected “C” for almost every answer… And what do ya know… I “excelled” in science, according to my test scores. I think way more importance is placed on testing and grading than it should be. We might have high test scores… but can these kids do anything else? Sure they can regurgitate answers, but do they have any life skills? I’ve seen or heard about this so many times, where kids around us don’t even know how sweep. Grades do NOT necessarily indicate someone having a good work ethic. I can’t think of a single person who I went to school with, who’s done especially well in life. Looks have gotten my classmates further than grades have. Several pretty girls have married very wealthy men. A handful of good looking guys are now models. A lot of kids go to college here, but many of them haven’t done anything since. They have the same sort of jobs they would have had without going to college. They go for the parties and because their parents can afford to send them. My husband’s a manager at a company where a lot of people come to to get their foot in the door. Some of them have fancy sounding degrees, and yet they’ve never worked a day in their life. It’s a mess. I wish we had a system that focused more on work ethic and actual life skills.

  • 4:20

    Glad you brought that up.

    If you exclude black and hispanic student scores America becomes competitive again.

    The most recent PISA results, from 2015, placed the U.S. an unimpressive 38th out of 71 countries in math and 24th in science.

    When US racial and ethnic groups are separately compared with other countries, Asian and white students regularly perform at or near the top of international rankings.

    While black and Hispanic students typically rank at or near the bottom.


  • I was hoping you would go into rating inflation. In principle, the average rating of the population should always be exactly 1,000, since every point that one player earns is lost by another. And if you include all ratings (including of inactive players), that is actually true (if you ignore some interruptions to the rating system, like when women got 100 free points in 1986). But there is a persistent claim that among the most elite players, ratings have gone up, even while their skill has not increased much relative to the general public. Whether or not this is true, it is at least possible. For instance, suppose only players with a rating 2000 or above are allowed to participate in most tournaments. Players with a true skill level somewhat below 2000 will sometimes be overrated and make it into these tournaments. On average, because they are overrated, they will donate points to other players until their rating drops back down to reflect their true skill. On the other hand, players that truly have a rating somewhat above 2000 will sometimes be underrated and unable to participate in these tournaments. But then they will just be taking points from lower rated tournaments until their rating rises back up to reflect their true skill. The overall result is a steady flow of rating points from weaker players to stronger players even if skill levels never change. Or at least, that’s the idea.

  • i’m british, and we do not use these tests. i’ve seen them in movies and thought they were old. i’m shocked they still use them.. that’s not learning. in britain you must write the answers yourself

  • You should take a look at Microsoft’s Trueskill algorithm. The Microsoft Research whitepaper goes into detail about the methodology that guided their decisions, and why Elo or modified Elo algorithms weren’t sufficient for more than 2 players.

  • The ACT has made me unbelievably stressed and anxious to the point where I need therapy. Seriously we need to rethink standardized tests

  • ⦁ If random variable X is normally distributed with mean 80 and standard deviation 10, find the probability of the following

    ⦁ P ( X < 95) =⦁ P(X > 75) =

    ⦁ P (70 < X < 100) =

  • Okay, so that means, that when a new player enters the sport, the total pool of points increases by 1000 and when a player retires the total amount decreases by their current rating. As a result, if a player retires with a ranking greater than 1000, then the total amount in play has decreased, and if they retire with fewer than 1000 points the total has increased.
    So my question would be: has the total Elo pool (significantly) increased over time?

  • “up to 32 points” I’ve definitely lost more than 32 points on occasions… I remember stalemating against a friend with a very low rating and losing over 50 points..

  • With all the emphasis on helping disabled students, and I am not necessarily against that, we overlook the gifted students. I taught myself to read, but I couldn’t take advanced courses until last year. Forcing gifted kids to take average courses convinces them they don’t have to study to do well, and then when they can take advanced classes they freak out because suddenly they have to work hard. Also, they don’t test smart kids for learning disabilities because it’s assumed that if you’re smart you don’t have disabilities. I know there’s something off with me. I get really emotional over little things, or go for days in an emotionless, zombielike state. I get really angry when people tap their pencils or make gross noises, and although I’ve learned to cope, I used to not eat my lunch because it was super loud and smelly in the cafeteria. But because I have high test scores I have never gotten diagnosed with a condition.

    Sorry not sorry if I seem kinda whiny to you, but I can’t possibly be the only one who goes through this crap.

  • I don’t have a problem with standardized testing. It’s just the way they are designed. They don’t test your knowledge on a subject, they test how you can finesse the answer without knowing anything or understanding the question. They don’t require you to think of the correct solution, just for you to assume what the right answer is.

  • One of the biggest problems with this channel is the name. It’s called Origin of Everything, but nearly all videos are deeply rooted in the USA. There is nothing wrong with that, but somehow it always leaves the question “what about the rest of the world.. what about everything?”
    Not that this is not an interresting topic, but it’s more like “How does the USA compare to other countries with tests results” and “What are other countries doing better”. It’s not so much about standardized testing (which could include, for example, results of scientific studies about tests and how kids deal with stress and so on), but more about the whole “let’s have a loot at how we test our children in the USA and compare it to some other countries”. Far from what i’d expect a channel called “Origin of Everything” to deliver, even if it is rooted in the USA.

  • I am taking a stat class for a graduate education degree and as a history teacher, math has never been my strongest subject. Thank you for these videos. From one Bob to another.

  • Standardized testing for Pre-K is simply ridiculous. However, what I would have also liked to see in this video is whether increased standardized testing was a gradual change in US education, or an abrupt one. Based on my 3 generational experience, it seems to me this began with my grandkid’s generation as a major thing. I recall having one week of standardized testing in 3rd, 5th and 8th grades each, PSAT in 10th, SAT in 11th, and that’s it. I don’t recall the Elementary or Middle school tests as having much impact on my learning, nor any special classes to prepare for the tests. I always loved doing the tests, as I test excellently, and therefore it was low stress for me, but I know I am not typical in that.

  • I took SAT in 2008 (the old format) and scored 1980 the first time and then 2240 the second time. It took me about one year of preparing and taking several books of practice tests. The SAT was useless, a waste of money and a waste of time. The SAT didn’t teach me anything and I didn’t learn anything from the SAT. It prepared nothing for my College.

  • I would be curious to know how could this rating system scale to a multi-player game where each game can have more than two players and the outcome is a ranking like:
    1: Alice
    2: Bob
    3: Charles
    4: Dominic
    I ran into this problem in the Android game that I develop. I created my own system, which, after a few iterations, seems to work well, but I would be curious to know if the Elo rating can apply!

    For info, the idea of my rating system is the following:

    A few criteria that I wanted was that the score should be somehow tangible. The unit should be meaningful, and not just an obscure number. Also, I wanted that not only the first of the ranking would win and the rest loose, but the gains should be adjusted progressively depending on the rank.

    For this, I decided that for a balanced match, each player in the ranking should receive a score equal to the number of players he defeated minus the number of players who defeated him.

    In my ranking example above, Alice score would be 3-0=3, while Charles would be 1-2=-1 (he won against D. but lost against A and B)

    So my scoring process presents two steps: the contribution, and the distribution.

    The contribution part consists in having the N players to contribute (n-1) of their score to the common pot which sums to n(n-1).

    The distribution simply consists in distributing 0 to the last player, 2 to the one above him, then 4 to the next, and climb the ranking up to giving 2(n-1) to the first player. This all sums to n(n-1), the amount from the contribution part!

    For each player’s point of view, the sum of its contribution plus its distribution gain does match the pattern described above: the first player gets n-1 and the last gets -(n-1), which corresponds to the idea of gaining as much points as people we defeated minus people we lost against.

    Now, in order to get the same property than the Elo rating where the gains are depending on the players rating, the idea is to weight the contributions depending on each players’ score before the match, still aiming for a total contribution of n*(n-1). This brings a bit of complexity since a very good player might “pay” for everyone’s contribution and end up loosing in overall even if he came up first in the ranking. This problem could be resolved by defining a maximum contribution with respect to the number of player.

    Anyway, with this system of weighted contributions according to players’ score and then the linear distribution, I could make a relatively fair competitive system where:
    fair repartition of the score across the ranking (not just the first one wins)
    winning against weaker players brings fewer points than winning against better opponents (and vice versa for losing)
    joining a large game with many participants presents higher risks (possibility to win more at once, but also to loose more)

    Hope that was understandable ��

  • Standardised tests basically give you the answer and the “smart” kids only have to identify the wrong answers and look for the answer that is right

  • Does Rotogenflux Methods really help to increase your IQ score over 17 points? I have read a lot of good stuff about this iq boost secrets.

  • Hello, I am a Korean student.

    I’m not the type that studies 16 hours a day and barely have any sleep, but there are crazy monsters in our country.
    Such a scary reality.

  • Prof RB you are truly gifted. Most go thru the mechanics and it doesn’t come alive. Finally the light is clicking on (I hope). Many many thanx

  • sir plz help me to solve this…
    ** Given a normal distribution with a mean of 60 and sd of 14, n=100
    what percentage of cases will lie between the score of50 and 65?? how n is include in calculation…

  • Well, I’d like to say a few words as a student from India, now studying abroad. it is not as bad as south korea, as the pressures only start mounting around 6th grade, it is fiercely competitive. there is two “central” exam which you are assessed based on, being IITJEE mains and advanced, and let me tell you, this system, while it seems to work on the surface, harms the students horribly, and it doesn’t hold up either. I kept falling sick as the exam approached, and I was sick on both exam days. now in hindsight, I can see that I hardly gave myself any sort of rest, compromising my immunity, and therefore my performance, throwing majority of my post8th std education out of the window. why I say that, will soon become evident.
    The second problem, is that in a bigger country, people will crack the basis for your exam. what I mean by that is, they will build up techniques to complete the exam without putting in the required work. you’ll have to increase the level of the courses as you go on, as they’ll crack every type of problem, and will have memorized the steps. that’s exactly what happened back at home. now, thanks to that, the university’s first year is comparable to my 8th grade in India.
    Oh and did I mention the worst part? this hyper focusing on studies has resulted in my completely forgetting how to socialize and move in a group. even today, 3 years after I’ve left India, and been living on my own, I still struggle to do basic things like maintain a conversation, approach someone,so on. The resulting loneliness is crippling, the cure is within reach, but it’s too hard to reach out and use it. my only friends are one person from school who the system would have left to rot if I didn’t step in and help, which probably costed me some marks and therefore closed off pretty much all the “reputable careers” in India, a.k.a Programming, Engineering and Medical, and a Second, an Indian junior who has been through this and has broken free.

    Currently, I’m working out, and tutoring juniors, to improve my confidence in social situations and also get some spare change so I can actually learn how to budget and cooking, which, in my opinion, is what I should have developed in high school instead of sifting through the piles of textbooks and finishing the never ending stream of assignments. Anyways I’m positive soon AI will take over most jobs, and at least my kids won’t have to suffer through such a horrible system.

  • Please just 1 test every end of the year. Please. I am in 5th grade currently and my worst grade every is an Aand I am best in math so to see the math scores made me feel special bacuse I am gifted but also sad that we did not score higher. I go to carrollton’s school around Canton Ohio and we take 4 per year with many other dotted around, so probly taking up to 100 decently important tests a year for a small school. AND WHY DO WE HAVE A TIME RESTRAINT???????? The us must just be weird and bad. Our food we eat our trash and deadly design of eletric items like outlets compared to briten outlets and our schooling. We schould learn stuff we need not how many water melon slices Jimmy can get if he cuts 83 water melons into 17 slices each. We need to learn banking and how the world works!!!!!!!!!!!!! And me going into 6th grade I will be in all advanced with roboticts class 3 and many other extra classes. Also I am in 4h kinda and I am a boy scout also a few other things. How will I have time to sleep and wake up at 5 to get on a bus and then take a test when I will have no spare time in my life.

  • I am a student in New Jersey, and I believe that way too much importance is placed on test results. Students spend numerous hours studying for standardized tests, losing much sleep in the process, because teachers, schools, and society in general makes it seem as though your entire future is based upon your scores on these tests (which, to a certain extent, is unfortunately true). Students become so stressed and anxious because of the pressure placed upon them to score well that their emotional health declines, and if they do not obtain excellent scores, they freak out and feel as though the world has ended. I don’t want to make generalizations and say that this is true of all schools, teachers, and students, but I know that at my school everyone (both teachers and students) is so focused on good grades that they forget what school should be about: giving children and teens the education they need to have successful lives and careers. However, I am not saying that standardized tests themselves are entirely bad. When used correctly, for the simple purpose of allowing students, teachers, and parents to view these students’ academic progress and make sure that they understand the material being taught, standardized tests can be helpful and useful. But when students are tested so frequently that their lives become a pattern of studying frantically, losing sleep, and completing stressful tests that do not accurately portray their academic ability, and when these tests are given so much importance that students constantly worry about them and their grades without actually LEARNING anything, standardized tests hinder their education tremendously. Therefore, I believe that teachers need to focus more on actually teaching their students and making sure they understand the material, and if not, HELPING THEM instead of administering tests and admonishing them when they do not score well. Standardized tests should simply be a way that students can show what they know and what they need to work on, so that teachers and parents can give them assistance in less confident areas, and should NOT have any impact on whether a student gets into a certain class or college, or any part of students’ lives and careers.

  • Why is this even a question? Of course it hurts students. It was never supposed to help students, though. It helps the systematic sorting of academics, not students themselves.