Recognizing Hyperlexia in youngsters


Patricia Ng Reading Comprehension for Children with Hyperlexia: A Scaffolding Method

Video taken from the channel: Dyslexia Association of Singapore


Autistic Kids Reading Early Autism & Hyperlexia

Video taken from the channel: Neurodivergent Rebel


Hyperlexia and Autism 3 year old can read

Video taken from the channel: thenlifehappensagain



Video taken from the channel: Jody Parmann


Children with High-Functioning Autism: “Gifted” or Hyperlexic?

Video taken from the channel: Mark Hutten, M.A.


Children with Hyperlexia

Video taken from the channel: CSLD Aide


Hyperlexia and Its Connection to Autism Child Development and Language Comprehension

Video taken from the channel: Mary Barbera Turn Autism Around

Signs of hyperlexia Signs of a developmental disorder. Despite being able to read well, hyperlexic kids will show signs of a developmental Lower than normal understanding. Kids with hyperlexia have very high reading skills but lower than normal understanding Ability to learn quickly. A diagnosis is usually made based upon these symptoms: A precocious and unnatural ability to start reading words that are far above the normal age of the child [3] Child may be extremely deficient in some areas and extremely gifted in other areas Difficulty in communicating and trying to understand.

Identification of hyperlexia is most important when children are young, because early intervention increases children’s chances for success, and since reading is a powerful tool for learning language and social skills, Once a child begins to understand verbal language, written language can be gradually decreased and used only in certain situations when something new or confusing is introduced. The article discusses the concept of hyperlexia, the continuum of word recognition abilities which may exist separately from general verbal functioning. There is an increasing number of school children who are subject to stressful situation in school because their skill to identify words is higher than their ability to comprehend and integrate. Hyperlexia is the spontaneous and precocious development of reading skills in children who are aged between 2and 5-years-old.

Hyperlexia is typically associated with kids. Children in the type II category have hyperlexia as a splinter skill as part of an autistic spectrum disorder. They read voraciously, usually with astonishing memory for what they read, and often have other memorization abilities, sometimes linked with number or calendar calculating skills.

If a disorder is not considered a diagnosable disorder in the DSM, it doesn’t technically exist and doesn’t get diagnosed. Hyperlexic kids often have sensory issues and autistic-like traits. Overview of Hyperlexia in Children. Medically reviewed by Lyndsey Garbi, MD At What Age Does Giftedness Appear?

Fact checked by Sean Blackburn Should You Hothouse Your Child? Fact checked by Adah Chung How Reading Fluency Develops. By Carol Bainbridge How Cluster Grouping Benefits Gifted Children in School. A child with a learning disorder in nonverbal skills appears to develop good basic language skills and strong rote memorization skills early in childhood.

Difficulties are present in visual-spatial skills, visual-motor skills, and other skills necessary in social or academic functioning. Hyperlexia: children who read early—identifying the subtypes. Hyperlexia— precocious reading ability in very young children—can present itself in several ways.

In one group some neurotypical children simply read early; they may be reading at a sixth grade level at age 3 for example with no behavioral or other concerns.

List of related literature:

In all children, look for dysmorphic features, inspect the skin (for neurocutaneous disorders such as NF1), and inspect the back (for any spinal disorder such as spina bifida, kyphoscoliosis).

“Oxford Handbook for Medical School” by Kapil Sugand, Miriam Berry, Imran Yusuf, Aisha Janjua, Chris Bird
from Oxford Handbook for Medical School
by Kapil Sugand, Miriam Berry, et. al.
Oxford University Press, 2019

(A) shows a plexiform neurofibroma in a 3-year-old boy, and (B) shows the same plexiform neurofibroma when the child is 11 years of age.

“Hurwitz Clinical Pediatric Dermatology E-Book: A Textbook of Skin Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence” by Amy S. Paller, Anthony J. Mancini
from Hurwitz Clinical Pediatric Dermatology E-Book: A Textbook of Skin Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence
by Amy S. Paller, Anthony J. Mancini
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2011

Ideally, telepsychiatrists would always query parents about the child’s eye contact so as to accurately assess relatedness—even when the difficulty seems obvious.

“Telemental Health: Clinical, Technical, and Administrative Foundations for Evidence-Based Practice” by Kathleen Myers, Carolyn Turvey
from Telemental Health: Clinical, Technical, and Administrative Foundations for Evidence-Based Practice
by Kathleen Myers, Carolyn Turvey
Elsevier Science, 2012

If most behaviors at the child’s age level are observed, the clinician can ask the parent about behaviors at subsequent levels.

“Language Disorders from Infancy Through Adolescence E-Book: Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing, and Communicating” by Rhea Paul, Courtenay Norbury
from Language Disorders from Infancy Through Adolescence E-Book: Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing, and Communicating
by Rhea Paul, Courtenay Norbury
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2012

Assessment of BPSD in adolescents should be longitudinal and comprehensive, including adolescent, parent, and teacher information to obtain a picture of the adolescent’s mood and behavior across home, school, peer, and work (if applicable) settings over an extended period of time (Fields and Fristad M).

“Encyclopedia of Adolescence” by Roger J.R. Levesque
from Encyclopedia of Adolescence
by Roger J.R. Levesque
Springer New York, 2014

Although there is a large literature on hyperlexia, it is in the main limited to descriptions of the condition rather than attempts to understand the nature of reading behaviour in children considered to be hyperlexic (see Snowling and Frith, 1986).

“Dyslexia, Speech and Language: A Practitioner's Handbook” by Margaret J. Snowling, Joy Stackhouse
from Dyslexia, Speech and Language: A Practitioner’s Handbook
by Margaret J. Snowling, Joy Stackhouse
Wiley, 2013

However in each case where there is pupillary mydriasis, the clinician should examine the child searching for signs of extraocular muscle dysfunction, ptosis and an exotropia that could represent avery early oculomotor nerve paresis.

“Peyman's Principles & Practice of Ophthalmology: Two Volume Set” by N Venkatesh Prajna
from Peyman’s Principles & Practice of Ophthalmology: Two Volume Set
by N Venkatesh Prajna
Jaypee Brothers,Medical Publishers Pvt. Limited, 2019

If Kallmann’s syndrome is suspected in a boy, then questioning about the sense of smell is useful (ask the parent whether the child notices smells at home, or ask the child if there are smells he likes or ones he does not).

“Examination Paediatrics” by Wayne Harris
from Examination Paediatrics
by Wayne Harris
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2011

If most behaviors at the child’s level are observed, the clinician can ask the parent about behaviors at subsequent levels.

“Language Disorders from Infancy Through Adolescence: Assessment & Intervention” by Rhea Paul
from Language Disorders from Infancy Through Adolescence: Assessment & Intervention
by Rhea Paul
Mosby, 2007

Even in the first year of life normally developing children show implicit mentalizing abilities, ‘joint attention’ skills, that are absent in children with ASD (Sigman et al. 1986).

“Special Educational Needs, Inclusion and Diversity” by Norah Frederickson
from Special Educational Needs, Inclusion and Diversity
by Norah Frederickson
McGraw-Hill Education, 2009

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  • My kiddo knew all his numbers/letters when he was 15 mos. old. He learned to read on schedule and reads well. However, he has terrible reading comprehension. In order to be hyperlexic does a child have to continue to be precocious in reading? My child is seemingly normal, but when he was really young he had a really amazing memory. He knew all the United States and could tell you what they were just by seeing the shape of the state. He knew all his shapes, all the way up to a dodecagon. He knew how many sides each shape had. He could count by 10s 100s 1000s 10,000s all the way to billions when he was 4. He knew all the planets and which ones were gas giants etc…But he’s not really doing stuff like that anymore, however, I still think he’s hyperlexic. And yes, my kiddo is autistic.

  • My son has autism and hyperlexia. I remember him starting to read at 1! In kindergarten the school said he was reading at a third grade level, yet he only attends a typical classroom for a couple of hours a day and he has to have a an aide all day. Transitions are very hard but getting better! He just doesn’t understand conversation. He is OBSESSED with letters and numbers. He has problem behaviors and self harming behaviors. One thing he likes to to do is jump and vocal stimming all day. It will drive you nuts! I really think if he understood more words meanings, he would have less behaviors. But getting there is so hard. We did ABA for two years, he didn’t respond well, that’s when a lot of his behaviors started and he is so much more defiant now. Not saying we didn’t get any good out of ABA because we did. I’m at a loss on what to do. He is seven years old now, he lays in the floor in public kicking and screaming when something doesn’t go just his way. However, sometimes now we can get him to hush and listen to us and he seems to understand our explanation as to why he can’t have what he was screaming about in the first place. That to me that is big progress and I think it shows that his language understanding is growing.

  • My daughter is 2 and a half year old now, can read pretty well, pronouced words pretty well too. She knows and is also very facinated with numbers, can count to 100. She knows the names of a lot of things, shapes,colors,animals and their sounds,the sorroundings and even knows the solar system. She is bilingual, danish and english and sometimes she counts in spanish and names colors in russian. The problem is she prefers to be alone, she doens’t socialize with other kids or play with them. She also have selective muteness, she only speaks what she read or heard that interest her. she sings a lot with the lyrics and not just mumbling and dance a lot. But she doesn’t communicate. For example if i say ”are you hungry, thirsty etc…?” she doesn’t answer yes or no….nothing at all. But if i say ”get your blanket”, ”get your dinosaur.” among others,,she goes and get them without saying anything at all. If i tell her to ”please turn on/off the lights”, ”close the door.” she does that too and looks at me because she is waiting for me to say ”thank you”. But that’s it, she doesn’t really communicate to me or to her dad or her sitter,grandparents,anyone…like the basic, i want water, i want to play,etc…she wont. It’s like she’s mute on those areas but she is really noisy singing, reading,stating the numbers, planets,shapes,animals and many more that interest her all day long. Her understanding is quite well even if she doen’t communicate normally. If i tell her its time for her to sleep now, she will pick up her blanket and go to her room and wait for me there to put her on the bed then i say goodnight and she says goodnight back but that’s it. If she is thirsty she doen’t tell me,or she wants something,she just grabs my hands and bring me to the kitchen or bring me to where the thing is that she wants. It is also a challenge for me to bring her to a doctors appointment or densist because she gets kinda temperant when we arrived there, it’s quite a reaction she does. She has something like communication delay? And it seems hard fr her to understand a certain situation and if i try to explain she doesn’t focus on what i am saying but just kept on scream/crying. Had you encounter a similar matter like this?

  • I’m hyperlexic. Started reading at around 2 & started reciting the Quran (in Arabic, which is my 3rd language) at around the same age. I still have deep passion for reading till this day & prefer books/other reading materials over people. The interaction with other human improves as I age but sometimes I still struggle a little bit with sentence structuring during talking (not when I’m writing though). I’m now 36, married & am a physical therapist with a bachelor degree in law & am also currently studying psychology. All in all life’s amazing. I don’t think of it as a major disadvantage at all. I just think that it made me a real student of life which is fantastic��

  • So guess who was hyperlexic and dysgraphic when they were a kid? Was able to read at a college level in primary, wrote like I was a 4 year old. That discrepancy between the two confuses a lot of people. Normally when somebody can’t write, they can’t read. Just like it is expected that if a person cannot speak, they cannot comprehend. Even now, because I choose to associate with those who have intellectual disabilities and/or Autistic, the non LD adults who run the groups seem to get extra excited when I start speaking fancy or start talking about abstract concepts. Then people wonder why I waste my time with people who aren’t as smart as me. Then I remind them that I don’t know how to tie my shoes and that my problems are just “different” than the others.

  • My girl could read fluently before she was 2 without knowing what she was reading. She also had severe language delay. She started speaking with age 4. At 5 i was advised she might be autistic. I didn’t know much about autism before. She is in normal school. She does well in school but she has clear problem with math. She cant seem to be able to calculate. Still watching her progression. She started her first terapy yesterday 12.02.2019 (12. February 2019). Im keeping my fingers crossed for her

  • My 3 year old can read as if he was a 6 year old or older. He can read in Spanish and English. He is trying to teach himself German. I am not sure this is something to worry about. He does not seem to be autistic, where do I have to go to get help and figure out if he needs a diagnosis?

  • Hi I just stumbled across this subject after googling it last night.

    My son started saying the alphabet and counting before 2 but we never taught him we assumed his daycare probably did.
    He seems bored since than so I’ve been trying to find new things to stimulate him. But only the alphabet and numbers he likes.

    I’m not sure if he has this but he loves letters and numbers and patterns. He becomes obsessed.

    And the about a month ago he read a baby book to me that I thought perhaps he’d memorised. I must admit I was a bit worried he would be picked on so I haven’t encouraged him as much but I see now that it’s apart of him. My family encouraged me to continue.

    So thank you for this information. It helps me a lot to try and figure out what is happening ❤️❤️❤️ and what to expect. ❤️

    Actually it’s great information because I wasn’t sure what was going on with him but now it all makes sense ❤️

  • Hey……We are looking to partner with you to create a series of review/tutorial videos. But not able to get your email ID. Please send email to [email protected](dot)com with your channel URL. We will discuss there…Waiting

  • Hyperlexia is so much more than that and yet there is not so much information about it to the public. There are type 1,2 and 3 for instance. The early reading and understanding letters and numbers is a blessing but comes with struggles like lack of social awareness and lack of social skills, reading comprehension (they can read but cant understand what they are reading), the speech eventually gets to a good level but because of comprehension issues there is a struggle to communicate, the autistic traits fade with time 7+ years on the type 3. But the social interaction, social awareness, social skills, social development is a massive issue.

  • I enjoyed your video but I’m not sure I agree with your approach of not focusing on one of the child’s key strengths and instead promoting verbal language. My three year old son does not speak yet, but we work on speech sounds ALL the time and he can now mimic those with increasing clarity. We DO focus on speech, but every SALT we’ve seen has told us that speech should not be the key focus, communication should, in whatever way is easiest for that child. By utilising his hyperlexic skills, I have programmed an app (a bit like the ones they have with pictures, but just words only) that turns his ability to read into a communication device. It enables him to communicate his needs in a way that he wasn’t able to before. I have also used his love of letters and numbers to teach him wider concepts and to increase social interaction, turn-taking etc. I agree it should be monitored so it does not become obsessive in nature and distract from other areas of learning, but I think in many cases, focusing on this skill can actually be a good thing.

  • Wow. My son is 29 and now I know what he is. Back when he was a kid the insurance didn’t cover autism. My showed many signs of autism. And read books at four and was reading history books at 7. He couldnt be touched. Poor socialization and language skills. And couldn’t follow written or verbal directions. Didn’t look into eyes. Etc. No one tested him until 15. By then he had anxiety. Right around 17. He became more outgoing and verbal. But social cues are still really poor. And as an adult he has relationship problems because if that. Also because he still hates being touched. Before he could talk at 3.5 years he was doing crazy things like getting up in the middle of the night and cooking or pouring gallons of milk down the sink. At 9 he collected old batteries. He was an f student in school until late highschool. Then in college he has been a straight a student because he is good at reading and writing. He is math dyslexic though. This is all similar to my brother who couldnt talk until 5 and walked very late. was building tvs from scratch at 9. Also was playing games against college kids on ms dos at 10. Had his own tv VCR computer repair at 17. But again very difficult with math and social skills. Now my grand daughter couldnt walk until 2. Only said a few words at 2. And now 2.5 is beginning to read and has been showing us objects to identify since 10 months old. Repeats a lot but remembers everything that is said to her. She knew all her letters capital and lowercase before she could more than a few words. And knows all the sounds and is answering ending sounds. Also counts to 30 in Spanish and english knows the Spanish and English alphabet etc. She understands both spanish and english. She knows every kids song possible. So I think she is following in the same pattern. She has been going ti therapy for speech, development and physical since 18 months. She showed unusual fears at a young age. Like walking around furniture it took her 2 months to go around a corner on a table. I really think its genetic. I am going to talk to the therapist about this. Very interesting.

  • What about these alternative diagnostics like hyperlexia type 3 and Einstein Syndrome?What do you think about it?
    For example,we recognize that our baby could read when he was just 2 but with all the classic red flags(not attending his name,no eye contact,no language, no interaction, etc…)with 2years and 3 months he just start to speak and show comprehension about everything.His vocabulary it’s much more advanced that supose to be for his age and he developed this suddenly in just 2 months…Start to show interest in other kids( imitating, searching for play together, etc)and improve so much that made us start to consider that maybe he could have something similar to autism. His intelligence is still there like read,mathematics-he can make addition and subtraction,amazing puzzle skills and memory.The only thing we see that he still struggles is with eye contact that still is poor( he improved a lot that aspect but I still consider not normal).Right now he is only 33 months.
    I stay wondering if he is a classic case of High function or we should consider something else one time that he suddenly developed so much.
    Hyperlexia it’s confusing and mysterious to me.

  • Finally you made special video about Hyperlexia after discussing in your Intermediate Learner Course. I was in denial like you too. Thank you so much Dr Mary.

  • Help me!!! My son could label hundreds of words since he was a baby. He always had eye contact. Now he is 6 and he never asks questions nor has any conversation about any topic. All he can do is mand and follow a 2 step commands. How can I get him to ask more questions? Are you able to show us sample sessions on this topic? Thank you so much

  • My 4.5yr old has hyperlexia but now it’s more hypernumeracy. We live in the UK and our paediatrician, preschool staff, teachers, health visitor… none of them have heard of it. Thank goodness on the Internet and social media I can see other kids are exactly like my son. My son is verbal, sociable, affectionate, but diagnosed ASD (Aspergers and gifted). There are some supportive FB groups I’ve found helpful and the website ‘And Next Comes L’. He starts primary school next week.

  • Hi Mary, my daughter is hyperlexic, and has a very limited speech, she had echolalia, have a robotic voice or expression less, she can’t understand others and has an aggressive response to sarcasm please help me

  • im 22 yo and i dont remember what i just readed, btw even now days i cant properly do a first grade test… its just like i wasted more than 12 years in school to learn almost nothing except how painfull life is, stress everyday, trauma etc. i should not have any grade but still managed to pass every grade when i have only E and F(im not educated to live on my own life, first thing that comes to my mind when i think about disconnecting from my family is suicide because what else?). i know what im best in: at being a slave to people who use me, for example, my family.

  • Though I have no memory of my own learning to read and talk, my autistic daughter was attempting to talk before one year of age. She didn’t have the muscle control of her vocal cords to speak in understandable English, but it was clear that the sounds that she made for each different thing, were consistent. I could point to a picture of her and ask; who’s that? She would say the word she used for her name. If I pointed to a picture of her brother, she would say the name she used for him.

    By her second birthday, she was talking up a storm in understandable English. She loved to be read to and if you misread something, she would correct you, because she knew how to read very early on. By 5 years of age, she was a precocious little girl that astonished everyone she conversed with. She had a vocabulary beyond many teenagers. By high school, she put her English teachers to shame in spelling and grammar. She even catches me on usage, now and then.


  • I am the exact opposite. I read so slowly that I notice every mistake in writing, and it takes me a long time to comprehend what I’ve read.

  • Hyperlexia types 1 2 and 3.. only type 2 is associated with Autism. To say it’s most likely Autism is being extreme. Hyperlexia is reading without being aware of what you are reading. It can also go along with ADHD and other disorders that have very similar “red flags” as autism. Also Hyperlexia on its own comes with delayed speech as a result of the brain being hyper sensitive to one thing over the other. so to add “it’s most likely Autism if delayed speech is associated” doesn’t add any fact based insights… 3 -5% of autistic children have Hyperlexia so I would not classify those numbers as an Autistic trait… Hyperlexia is why I’m currently having such a hard time figuring out if my 2 1/2 year old son is on the spectrum or not. Hyperlexia and speech delay along with hyperactive are the only standing red flags. Also I don’t know if saying cat for C would be considered hyperlexia. they know letters and their sounds and associated words like the back of their hands and don’t tend to get them mixed up.

  • I love this video! It was truely amazing and inspirational! I am also an Autistic kid with Hyperlexia, I started reading science booklets about tornadoes ��, giant squids/octopus ����and a wide selection of other science and technological related topics when I was still in diapers and with that I am completely self-confident about my Hyperlexic Autism and I hope you are about yours as well! You’re an amazingly beautiful girl with a clever personality and your Autism along with Hyperlexia are just a great part of what makes you the Unique and Beautifully Clever girl you are!❤️��������������������❤️

  • i was learning to read, when i was 5 years old, 30 years ago, by myself,, in 1990, but i had big Problems, to unterstand the important kontext, in the Text i red, but the others, couldnt imagine this, because i red verry quickly and in a high Quality. i pronounced all words verry unemotional, because i see it as a Fakt,, but i didn,t know the Meaning,, behind the Text, i ve just learnd this by hard.

  • Hello… Nice to see u.. am a teacher for SPECIAL NEEDS AUTISM in Indonesia..woul d you like give me some information…again..about AUTISM and because in limited..for the information.. I needs information again.. from the other country.. I have been 12 years teach in AUTISM.. please feed back to me.. thx… From Indonesia.. capital city of Surabaya.. I use ABA LOVAAS..

  • I can show you proofs of people who have testify cured totally and I can send your their phone numbers to reach them. I have cured so many children and adults with the help of my herbal medicines. You can contact me now if you need any help [email protected] and [email protected] WhatsApp number is +2348102558553.

  • Hi
    My son who is going to be three in 3 months does not speak a word or follow to what you say. He will not respond if you call him or point at things or even would care about any thing around him.
    And suggestions
    And we are due for an evaluation starting August which is still 6 months away.

  • yesss i so relate!! I taught myself to write before I started school and I remember when I was about 11 my teacher not believing me that the Complete Works of Shakespeare I brought to school for reading time was what I was actually reading ��

  • Whoa! Are you me? I also started reading and speaking aloud when I was 18 months, and no one had to teach me, really. I had terrible behavior problems in school, but could still read well beyond my grade level. I was quite a marvel.

    Although, I don’t know if I’m as fast of a reader as you. I often get stuck on one paragraph for a long time.

  • My parents don’t know if I read early, or rote-memorized my favorite books. I read so fast, it creates gaps in my comprehension of stories. I can digest short paragraphs with unusual comprehension, but larger stories and novels leave gaps that I don’t discover unless I re-read many times. I’ve even missed facts in videos I’ve seen dozens of times, unless it’s actually pointed out to me or in an article.

  • I read very well at a young age and although I have no memory of this kid, my mom said that I was a very bright and outgoing kid who always got called on in class to read out loud etc… Then the bullying started and it all went downhill from there. Thanks for sharing, I threw you a follow on Instagram!��

  • Thank you so much for sharing this video. This is a carbon copy of my son, he hasn’t had any diagnosis yet as we are waiting for all his referrals to come through but with COVID19 it’s all been held up. My son could count to 5 at the age of 13 months which nobody would beleive me and I had to record him saying them. At 14 months we were moving house and the boxes we had were previously used for shipping so had numerical codes on them and my son sat for ages pointing the numbers and saying them. By the age of 18 months he could recite his full alphabet and count to 10 but could not speak even saying mama or dada he would not say. He prefers to watch videos that involve shapes, colours, letters and numbers rather than cartoons. He is 2 and a half, his speech is still delayed although he is trying to say some words but he can identify letters when written out, can count to 20 and coundown backwards from 10, knows all this colours, shapes and bodyparts. His behaviour is starting to become very challenging and is showing a lot of signs for being on the spectrum. Up until now I had never heard of hyperlexia so I’m glad I have a better understanding.

  • I just have to say this to you Mary. you are a real life Super Woman. and super Mommy. Your boys are so lucky to have you. God bless you all.

    im new to this as i am still investigating the possibility of ASD in my child.

  • I am autistic and have hyperlexia too! Always been fascinated with numbers and words and like you I was taught myself to read my mum always tells me people used to be blown away by it!! I always wondered why I collect certain things and have always loved learning new complex words even as the 25 year old that I currently am! I was diagnosed last year at 24! I’ve shut myself off from all my school friends from the age of 18-22 I dropped all of my friends one by one in fear that they didn’t like me and that they’d be better off without me because I’m weird or strange. But I know who I am now and it’s made life become more beautiful to me again. I’m no longer sleeping my days away depressed not knowing what’s wrong with me. I still don’t have many friends just my partner. However the days are brighter now than ever and I am so PROUD to be on the spectrum. To me it means I am interesting, quirky, unique and a lil part eccentric! �� But I want to thank you from the bottom of my heart for your content. You were the first channel I saw when I was diagnosed. �� Thank you again ❤️! And hello from the U.K. too!! ������