Coping With Cousin Competition Among Children

 

Dealing with sibling rivalry

Video taken from the channel: Maggie Dent


 

Dealing with Your Kids’ Sibling Rivalry | Child Anxiety

Video taken from the channel: Howcast


 

Sibling Rivalry in Children Reasons and Solutions

Video taken from the channel: FirstCry Parenting


 

How To Stop Siblings From Fighting

Video taken from the channel: Live On Purpose TV


 

How To Deal With Sibling Rivalry In Toddlers

Video taken from the channel: Live On Purpose TV


 

Dealing With Sibling Rivalry

Video taken from the channel: Sleep Sense


 

Sibling Rivalry: How Do I Get My Kids To Stop Fighting

Video taken from the channel: TEACH through Love


Take steps to encourage healthy sibling relationships: Respect each child’s unique needs. Treating your children uniformly isn’t always practical. Instead, focus on meeting Avoid comparisons. Comparing your children’s abilities can make them feel hurt and insecure. Avoid discussing the Set the.

Tips for Child Care Providers to Deal with Children’s Rivalry. Although children’s rivalry can be frustrating, child care providers can reduce the bickering and arguing. Here are some simple ideas for the child care setting that may reduce rivalry among children: Set aside time to be alone with each child. If children have some one-on-one time with the child care provider, they are less. When the sibling rivalry progresses to excessive physical or verbal violence OR when the number of incidents of rivalry becomes excessive, take action. (Action does speak louder than words).

Talk with your children about what is going on. Provide suggestions on how they can handle the situation when it occurs, such as: Ignoring the teasing. Telling her how you feel might change your whole relationship. If talking it out with your parents or sibling doesn’t work and you’re really hurting, it’s time to see a therapist or psychologist. While some parents see bullying among their children as a normal form of sibling rivalry, few people realize that, in many families, it can continue well into adulthood. S.

Overt rivalry in childhood is upfront, dynamic and character-building, a necessary rite of passage that enables each child to find their niche within the family. But sibling envy in. Acknowledge each others’ feelings and actively listen to what your siblings have to say. The Mayo Clinic recommends family meetings starting when the family is young to give children a chance to voice their concerns and work out conflicts in a safe environment.

Reasons for Adult Sibling Rivalry Sibling relationships are complex and influenced by a variety of factors including genetics, life events, gender, parental relationships, and experiences outside of the family. Parental favoritism is often cited as a source of adult sibling rivalry. Scapegoating is often a way for families to hide problems that they cannot face.

In the examples of cases I have worked with one or both parents were abusive to their children. In adulthood, scapegoating became a way for adult children to hide the fact of family history of abuse by blaming everything on one member who seemed vulnerable for attack. Parents play a huge role in creating jealousy among siblings. Jeremy Boyle, research associate at Brigham Young University, categorizes parental influence into three categories: expectations, labels and favoritism.

Parents may place expectations on their children based on their own inadequacies.

List of related literature:

Part of my advice to the parents was, of course, to give both Tim and his cousin much focused attention; that is to spend time with Tim alone and the cousin alone.

“How to Really Love Your Child” by Ross Campbell
from How to Really Love Your Child
by Ross Campbell
David C. Cook, 2004

Some rivalry is natural, but if the children don’t like each other or fight an abnormal amount, perhaps you’re being asked to learn the lesson of speaking up more quickly, as stepmom Kathy wishes she had.

“The Courage to be a Stepmom: Finding Your Place Without Losing Yourself” by Sue Patton Thoele
from The Courage to be a Stepmom: Finding Your Place Without Losing Yourself
by Sue Patton Thoele
Council Oak Books, 2003

Suggestions such as spending time with each child, letting children settle their arguments, and accepting angry feelings while teaching children appropriate ways to express hostility are general guidelines for dealing with the eventual conflicts between brothers and sisters.

“Wong's Nursing Care of Infants and Children Multimedia Enhanced Version” by Marilyn J. Hockenberry, David Wilson, Donna L. Wong, Annette Baker, R.N., Patrick Barrera, Debbie Fraser Askin
from Wong’s Nursing Care of Infants and Children Multimedia Enhanced Version
by Marilyn J. Hockenberry, David Wilson, et. al.
Mosby/Elsevier, 2013

What do you do when your cousin tells you that she won’t let her children play with your child?

“Parenting a Child Who Has Intense Emotions: Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills to Help Your Child Regulate Emotional Outbursts and Aggressive Behaviors” by Pat Harvey, Jeanine A. Penzo
from Parenting a Child Who Has Intense Emotions: Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills to Help Your Child Regulate Emotional Outbursts and Aggressive Behaviors
by Pat Harvey, Jeanine A. Penzo
New Harbinger Publications, 2009

I don’t like my daughter-in-law/son-in-law He is going with his first cousins Why did you and your second cousin fight?

“The Raupo Phrasebook of Modern Maori” by Scotty Morrison
from The Raupo Phrasebook of Modern Maori
by Scotty Morrison
Penguin Random House New Zealand, 2011

Give feedback as the child progresses through the list by saying, “That’s right,” if the response is correct and giving the correct response yourself if the child’s response is incorrect.

“Early Reading Assessment: A Practitioner's Handbook” by Natalie Rathvon
from Early Reading Assessment: A Practitioner’s Handbook
by Natalie Rathvon
Guilford Publications, 2004

Sibling rivalry problems are frequently addressed in the play sessions.

“Play Therapy Theory and Practice: A Comparative Presentation” by Kevin J. O'Connor, Lisa Mages Braverman, Lisa D. Braverman
from Play Therapy Theory and Practice: A Comparative Presentation
by Kevin J. O’Connor, Lisa Mages Braverman, Lisa D. Braverman
Wiley, 1997

At six or any age the defense of deidentification offers enormous relief from sibling rivalry.

“Necessary Losses: The Loves Illusions Dependencies and Impossible Ex” by Judith Viorst
from Necessary Losses: The Loves Illusions Dependencies and Impossible Ex
by Judith Viorst
Simon & Schuster, 2010

To show SECOND COUSINS, add your children in No. 4 al top and your cousin’s children in No. 4 along the side, etc.

“Anadarko: Days of Glory” by N. Dale Talkington, Pauletta Hart Wilson
from Anadarko: Days of Glory
by N. Dale Talkington, Pauletta Hart Wilson
N. Dale Talkington, 1999

Set up a conference with the parents of each child to explain the situation carefully.

“Lippincott Q&A Review for NCLEX-RN” by Diane Billings, Desiree Hensel
from Lippincott Q&A Review for NCLEX-RN
by Diane Billings, Desiree Hensel
Wolters Kluwer Health, 2016

Oktay Kutluk

Kutluk Oktay, MD, FACOG is one of the world's foremost experts in fertility preservation as well as ovarian stimulation and in vitro fertilization for infertility treatments. He developed and performed the world's first ovarian transplantation procedures as well as pioneered new ovarian stimulation protocols for embryo and oocyte freezing for breast and endometrial cancer patients.

Mail: [email protected]
Telephone: +1 (877) 492-3666

Biography: https://medicine.yale.edu/profile/kutluk_oktay/
Bibliography: oktay_bibliography

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29 comments

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  • I have heard you say in other videos there is only ever one chance to change a behavior but now for this situation its 3 chances? I guess I am a little unsure on that

  • Mine are actually my nephews. One kid behaves and the other one fights. One hits and people laugh when he hits adults but then his cousin was next. And people were notsaying anything so I always say something and people get mad. I’m wondering what game I can make both of them play to get along. It’s gotten to the point were I have to be 1 cm or less away from them at all times. His mom just stands there and stares and doesn’t even say no. The kid who has gotten hit doesn’t even want to come to our house anymore. I would not want to come either if I were the victim. Today the kid who fights hit his mom as hard as he has hit others and she realized that it hurts. How can you not realize it from the beginning? He has left other kids’ faces red and crying histerically. “Cria cuervos y te sacaran los ojos”.

  • So my brothers whenever we are near someone they try their hardest to make me look bad and to make them look like an angel, I need to know how to deal with that.
    Cause the start an argument by making me look bad then I start saying to shut up and stuff then they get mad then the other person is all like yeah Seagulls.
    I really hate my house life.

  • parental involvement is the key �� without that parents have already LOST and the state through the school system or the neighbors or their electronics will raise their children and that is not what any parent wants to see happen to their Sons and Daughters.

  • What about this scenario….. 5 year old girl favours one twin boy over the other….. the one that always gets left out (ezra) he is a little more aggressive and social. The one she favours is shy and quiet. I feel like working on ezra will help this but its upsetting when I see our daughter drawing pictures blatantly leaving ezra completely out or of to the side of pictures. It makes me sad and I dont know how to go about handling this.

  • Very helpful! Sibling struggles are a real challenge in our home right now. I will try these ideas, especially serving and honoring each other when tempers are not flaring��

  • I argue with my 13 year old brother I’m older then and most of the time its over really little things. I struggle with ignoring him and we both push each others buttons. The worst part about arguing with my brother is that we both really love each other and know we do,but have different ways of being empathetic. My brothers ways are just hard for me to recognize. If I practice being calm and trying to see things from his stand point without judgment I know I could help him and myself more, but it is difficult when one is angry to control them self. I’ll have to practice. Thank you for the video by the way.

  • Well that doesn’t mean you can’t hold the younger one’s hand when he tries to hit the older one. I’m not waiting until the 1.5 year old is 3 years old to protect the currently 3 year old. I hold his hand gently and say, “no, don’t do that”.

    Edit: I wrote that before 2:03. You guys were making mad. “Oh it stops at 3 years old”. Hmm. No! It stops right now!

  • Hey Lori! I’ve just discovered your channel and I loooove it. You present so beautiful and there is so much helpful advice in your videos. Just wanted to connect and say a big thank you!

  • I’m not a parent but a brother I am nice shy guy but with them I get easily triggered so I came here trust me I do nothing and say nicely but they don’t listen

  • F.y.i, 90% of those arguments are mainly manifestation of previous events that lead to this. The arguments and fighting are the effects of the cause. It’s hard as a parent to give equal love, attention, and time with every child and kids pick up on Vibes really well. So my opinion is to chachange the environment and the atmosphere in the home and you’ll see change in the cause, manifesting positive Effects.

  • For example, if we’re arguing about which game to play, we can make a vote with our siblings and the majority wins, which means the biggest voted group would be chosen to play the game.

  • God right now I lift up everyone who is reading this and lord I pray in Jesus Name that if there is anyone who doesn’t know you or is troubled about their souls reading this then by all means please allow this comment to enlighten their path to draw them to yourself and gloriously be saved from that horrible eternal place called Hell lord that’s my prayer and that’s my hope! I pray that Satan will be completely banned from this comment right now in Jesus Name and Satan only by the authority of Jesus Christ and his word which I stand upon you are completely banned from this comment! I don’t care whether you like it or not I am praying for the lost to get saved and am seeking to completely set fire to your harvest Mr.! you are nothing but a Liar with a capital L the father of Lies!!!!! A cheater! A deceiver! A joker! A murderer! A thief! A stalker! A depressant! And most of all a father of lies low down yellow dog loooooooser! And there’s absolutely nothing you’re going to say or do that’s going to change your future whatsoever! you are going to be cast into the lake of fire where you’re going to burn forever and ever and whether you like it or not we are all gods children and praise be to God we won’t be joining you……… So in Jesus name I demand and insist that you back away from us entirely leave us all alone get thee behind Jesus and don’t come back you hear me? Don’t come back ever and in Jesus name be gone forever your father of lies loser! Because you’re going to hell! Repeat you’re going to hell! And your time is short! Lord again please just reach out to the lost folks that read this comment! Lord if anyone is troubled about their souls then please I beg you may they waste no time commenting back to me so I can show them how to come to know the precious sweet savior Jesus who made it possible to escape the wrath to come! God time is running out and ppl need to respond to the Gospel quickly before it is too late! If Jesus would forsake the 99 sheep go outta his way to still try to save the one remaining lost lamb then can you please use me to reach out to the remaining lost lambs! Also please be with Ray Comfort Kirk Cameron and all those street preaching and sharing your word and the gospel during these darkening days lord I want nothing more than to see your wonderful precious and holy name most high and glorified whatever that takes! Lord as your children everyday I ask that you please fill our hearts with much patience grace wisdom strength and obedience to accomplish your perfect will and as we as your children through these dark days seek the bright light of your face May we daily much exalt magnify and glorify high and lift up the king of kings and the Lord of lords much to the fullest extent in all we say and do lord that’s my prayer and that’s my hope! Please lord again use us and strengthen us to win the lost to you! As always God in the good times you are worthy to be praised and we’re going to give you all the glory with thanksgiving in our hearts for you giving us all things to enjoy and in the bad times we’re still going to do just the same lord because you are Jehovah Jireh our provider Jehovah Nissi our banner Jehovah Ropheka our healer and the perfect physician Dr. Jesus Christ Jehovah Shalom our wonderful and blessed prince of peace! And the God who comforts us in all of our afflictions! You are the alpha the omega the beginning and the end! The first and the last are you! The absolute timeless God the eternal God the infinite God the Holy God the righteous God the beautiful God the Rose of Sharon the buckler the captain of our soul the dayspring from on high the daystar the bright and morning star the lily of the valley the light of the world! Lord thank you so much for your death on the cross for our sins! Romans 5:8 says God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. And also John 3:16-17 says For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life! For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved. Yes lord you are worthy of all our praise worship and adoration! Thank you for your unfailing love toward us and for saving our souls from the pits of Hell! And Lord no matter how fiery our trials can become lord just giving you all the praise and thanksgiving will cause us to become overcomers and more than conquerors! And as always no matter how painful or even unbearable our temporary sufferings can become still Romans 8:18 paints just the perfect picture of just how small and temporary our troubles are compared to eternity as it states that our present sufferings are not worthy to be compared to the glory that shall be revealed in us! And I also know that 1st Thessalonians 4:16-18 day is coming For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord. Wherefore comfort one another with these words. Also 1 Corinthians 15:51-52 tells us that Behold, I shew you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. And also Revelation 21:4 day is near and God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes and there shall be no more crying death sorrow neither shall there be any more pain for all the former things have passed away and all things are new! What a day that will be! When my Jesus I shall see! When I look upon his face! The one who saved me by his grace! When he takes me by the hand and leads me to the promised land! What a day! Glorious day! That will be! Just a few more weary days and then I’ll fly away! To that place where Joy shall never end! I’ll fly away! I’ll fly away oh glory! I’ll fly away in the morning! When I die hallelujah by and by! I’ll fly away! By and by when the morning comes! When the saints of God are gathered home we will tell the story of how we’ve overcome! And we’ll understand it better by and by! Sing the wondrous love of Jesus! Sing his mercy and his grace! In the mansions bright and blessed! He’ll prepare for us a place! When we all get to heaven what a day of rejoicing that will be! When we all see Jesus! We’ll sing and shout the victory! O victory in Jesus! My savior forever! He sought me! And bought me! With his redeeming blood! He loved me ere I knew him! And all my love is due him! He plunged me to victory! Beneath the cleansing flood! And as Titus 2:13 puts it we are waiting for that blessed hope of the glorious appearing of our lord and savior Jesus Christ! I’m kinda homesick for a country to which I’ve never been before! No sad good byes will there be spoken! And time won’t matter anymore! Beluah Land I’m longing for you and someday on thee I’ll stand where my home shall be eternal! Beluah Land Sweet Beluah Land!!!! Yes lord what a wonderful beautiful glorious and victorious morning that still lies ahead for all of us who belong to you and are called according to your purpose! Forever all our pain will be forever forgotten ousted and vanished in the presence of our lord and savior Jesus Christ! Yes lord please use these reminders to set all of our minds on things above and not things down here! and finally when all is said and done please just multiply and pour out all on our days ahead with much smiles satisfaction and laughter unimaginable sunshiny happy days and Joy unspeakable! Also please fill each of our cup till it overflows! Finally please just remind us we as brothers and sisters Will be in much prayer for each other love one another dearly and will never give up on one another as long as it takes and I pray all this in his precious and holy name amen…….:-)

  • Siblings will argue with each other that’s normal however parents should establish boundaries early on while children are young let your children know what you expect their behavior to be like. Healthy communication is the key to a good relationship.

  • My kids are my foster kids and all they know is fighting. I’m having a hard time getting them to listen to me at all, even when I’m calm and trying to help. They just ignore me.

  • I am grateful to say that I am a born again Christian and have been since I was 19…….the reason I believe that siblings often fight or can’t get along is not just a physical emotional or mental thing it is also spiritual warfare!!!!!! in Ephesians 6:11-12 it says to Put on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places! also I believe quite often that the rod of correction is being spared!!!!!! Proverbs 13:24 tells us not to spare the rod!!!!!!! and I also believe that as we closer approach the return of Christ that we will see more hatred in families as our spiritual labor is intensifying!!!!! that’s why we see more fightings between little siblings and not only siblings but also marriages and all sorts of different places!!!!!! it is because Satan is at work to as John 10:10 puts it Kill Steal and Destroy!!!!!! folks if you don’t know Christ as your savior the only son of God that the Bible says he did not spare for us then it burdens my soul to think that you are headed for a terrible place called Hell where the Bible says the fire is never quenched and the worm dies mnot! Folks you are not promised tomorrow! If you want to know how to be saved from this horrible reality then please by all means don’t hesitate to comment right back so I can lead you to the savior! 2 Corinthians 6:2 clearly states “now is the time of God’s favor, now is the day of salvation!” And Hebrews 3:15 clearly states, “Today if you hear his voice don’t harden your hearts! It is not me but the Holy Spirit that I pray reveals to you the truth of his precious gospel……John 3:16 says for God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten son that whoever believes on him will not perish but have everlasting life! V 17 says then V 18 says whoever believes on the son is not condemned but whoever does not believe on the son is condemned already because he has not believed on the son whom God has sent! Also Acts 16:30-31 what must I do to be saved? And they said, Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house I am not threatening anyone but just warning them what will happen if they reject this precious gift of eternal life! Christ died a horrible criminals death! He was beaten brutally mocked spit upon and endured countless hours of torture pain for all of our sins! Ppl go to hell because they reject that pardon for their sins! And Jesus is saying to them in Matthew 25:41 depart from me you cursed into everlasting fire prepared for the devil and his angels! Hell was only prepared for Satan and his angels! It is not God who threatens anyone it is the craziness of rejecting the free pardon of salvation! It’s like if you’re in court you’ve committed a crime say you murdered someone! Now if you say to that Judge hey I know I’ve done a terrible thing of murdering that person but I hear you’re a good judge and so I know you’ll be fair to me…… the judge is going to reply well yes you’re right about one thing I am a good judge and because I’m a good judge I’m going to see to it that you’re punished and that justice is served! Well then all of a sudden someone you don’t even know comes forward and says you know what I know he’s committed the crime he’s committed and he deserves to go to jail but I really don’t want to see him go to prison so I’ll just go to prison for him so he can go free! So if you accepted that offer you’d be free to leave the courtroom but if you didn’t well you’d be crazy and go to prison yourself! Well that’s exactly how it was 2,000 years ago! He is God in human flesh and he came to this earth lived a perfect sinless life and even though he knew that we had sinned and because of our sins deserved to die miserably but he said no I don’t want to see them suffer so I will go and take their punishment for them! Even though he did absolutely nothing wrong still he chose to take the punishment for our sins so we can be set free from the power bondages and consequences of our disobedience to God! Romans 5:8 says For God commends his love toward us that while we were yet sinners Christ died for us! 1 John 2:2 says he was made to be the propitiation for our sins! And not just for our sins but the sins of the whole world! 2 Corinthians 5:21 He who knew no sin became Sin for us that we would be made his righteousness! The truth is if you had to get to Heaven by your own effort then you cannot do it! Because Romans 3:10 says there is not one that does good! No Not One! Romans 3:23 says For all have sinned and fallen short of the glory of God! Romans 6:23 says For the wages of sin is death! But the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our lord! But the good news is Romans 10:9 If we confess with our mouth and believes in our hearts that Christ died for our sins then was raised from the dead we will be saved! V 10 For it’s with the heart we believe and it’s with the mouth confession is made unto salvation! God gave us 10 commandments to follow and we’ve broken every one of them! And because God is a good God he cannot allow our disobedience to him to go unpunished! Well then like I just mentioned above his son Jesus stepped forward and said no I don’t want to see them punished so I will take their punishment for them! And also like I said he died a terrible substitute criminal’s death for us on a cross so now all we have to do is accept that payment for our sins and we can escape the terrible wrath of God that is to fall on them who do not accept this atonement that was sacrificed for our sins! Praise the lord Romans 10:13 says Whoever calls on the name of the lord shall be saved! And 1 Peter 1:4 you’re an inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for you! Christ clearly said in John 14:6 I am the way the truth and the life and no one comes to the father but through me! Acts 4:12 clearly states that there is no other name given unto Heaven or earth by which we must be saved as there is salvation in no other! Jesus clearly states that there is clearly only one way to Salvation and it’s him that’s it! There is no other way! God Bless everyone who reads!

  • My big brother and my big sister were fighting today and my sister was just calm talking with her friend on the phone and my brother said I hate you and I hope you die and my sister ignored him then my brother jumped on her and kicked,slapped her and my brother is in a bad mood and my sister is in her room crying…I hope the get back together they had such and amazing relationship ��

  • What if both your children are going through puberty, one at a late age, one at an early age, and the other is gay. They absolutely hate each other and one is depressed due to the disagreements.

  • 2:17
    T-ake a breath
    Non judgement statement
    E-ngage and emphasize
    Stay calm & emotional safety
    A-cknowledge needs
    Need privacy, attention,
    C-oping skills

    H-ealthy development

  • My 4 year old was listening with me, around 8:35 she goes
    Do Grown-Ups Has To Respect Kids Too.
    Cause i always tell my kids that you guys has to respect each others.
    P.S she is the youngest of three.

  • im babysitting a 2 and 4 year old while mom works from home, i could really use some advice on how i can interact with both of them, the 2 year old wants to play with her older sister, but of course her sister doesn’t want that, so what can I do?

  • @Ron Hutchcraft that’s true! My nephew had thrown things at other kids and adults. It’s gotten to the point where the only thing I let him borrow are flash cards. That way he won’t throw anything I let him borrow like maracas, etc.

  • Dr. Paul, how do I explain respect to my four-year-old boy? If you already have a video on this, then please direct me. Thank you. Love your videos.

  • Very helpful! Thank you for addressing parenting issues with specific language and specific tips/tools we can all easily implement��

  • Give one Blue Gloves, The other Red Gloves, set up a ring in the garden with skipping ropes and let the fight commence. Winner gets all

  • Dear Dr. Paul,
    thank you so much for your help! I’ve heard about these respect rules in a previous video and I just couldn’t really communicate this to my children. Could you please, please talk about explaining this “Respect”, which the rules are about, to 3 and 5 year old kids? Would be so helpful for me!
    Best wishes from Germany��

  • This usually happens when we’re younger because we still don’t know social skills well. However, we’ll master our social skills as we get older. However, parents and teachers can teach us social skills.

  • So if you’re looking for weird comments people, you’ve come to the right place…
    that aside, best video on sibling rivalry out there, thank you! Heartbreaking to see the teens who have stumbled on this video trying to stop fighting with their siblings.

  • Thankyou Maggie. I wish I had discovered you sooner. My kids are no longer teens. I love your common sense approach. I have to admit there were times when I would send all my kids outside (in a safe enclosed back yard/courtyard area) because they were way too noisy and arguing and just being obnoxious. Actually I would lock the door so they couldn’t just decide to come straight back inside! It was timeout for me and it seemed to make them stop and think. I used to feel a bit guilty about it, thinking I was a bad parent, but nothing else seemed to work. Thank you for letting me know it was ok to do that. They don’t seem scarred by the experience…they laugh about it now. There were 4 of them so noise levels could be over the top.