The Way Your Genes Modify the Number in your Scale


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How Your Genes Affect the Number on Your Scale. Sept. 12, 2019. Sept.

12, 2019, at 9:00 a.m. More. How Your Genes Affect the Number on Your Scale. More. By Len Canter HealthDay Reporter.

How Your Genes Affect the Number on Your Scale THURSDAY, Sept. 12, 2019 Could your genes be keeping you from losing weight? While you shouldn’t use a family tendency toward wide hips or an apple shape as an excuse to stray from a healthy diet, acceptance can help you reassess your personal ideal and make you happier with your body.

By Len Canter HealthDay Reporter. THURSDAY, Sept. 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) Could your genes be keeping you from losing weight? While you shouldn’t use a family tendency toward wide hips or an apple shape as an excuse to stray from a healthy diet, acceptance can help you reassess your personal ideal and make you happier with your body.. Hundreds of genes.

Hundreds of genes have been linked to weight. Some affect where fat is distributed on your body while others impact metabolism, cravings and even whether you reach for food to cope with stress. Their influence on overweight can be as little as 25% or as much as 80%. Citation: How your genes affect the number on your scale (2019, September 12).

How Your Genes Affect the Number on Your Scale. By ariannawmd on September 12, 2019 Tweet; Pin It; Could your genes be keeping you from losing weight? While you shouldn’t use a family tendency toward wide hips or an apple shape as an excuse to stray from a healthy diet, acceptance can help you reassess your personal ideal and make you happier.

How Your Genes Affect the Number on Your Scale. By Weekly Sauce | September 12, 2019. Could your genes be keeping you from losing weight? While you shouldn’t use a family tendency toward wide hips or an apple shape as an excuse to stray from a healthy diet, acceptance can help you reassess your personal ideal and make you happier with your body. Hundreds of genes have been linked to weight.

Some affect where fat is distributed on your body while others impact metabolism, cravings and even whether you reach for food to cope with stress. Their influence on overweight can be as little as 25% or as much as 80%. Posted September 12, 2019; How Your Genes Affect the Number on Your Scale. Could your genes be keeping you from losing weight?

While you shouldn’t use a family tendency toward wide hips or an apple shape as an excuse to stray from a healthy diet, acceptance can help you reassess your personal ideal and make you happier with your body. Posted September 12, 2019; How Your Genes Affect the Number on Your Scale. Could your genes be keeping you from losing weight?

While you shouldn’t use a family tendency toward wide hips or an apple shape as an excuse to stray from a healthy diet, acceptance can help you reassess your personal ideal and make you happier with your body.

List of related literature:

For example, some genes that affect weight are turned on in fat cells and control how much fat you store away in reserve.

“Blueprint: How DNA Makes Us Who We Are” by Robert Plomin
from Blueprint: How DNA Makes Us Who We Are
by Robert Plomin
MIT Press, 2019

As presented later in this chapter and others, some typical epigenetic factors involve changes in DNA methylation or modifications to chromatin that change genome structure and hence influence gene expression even in the absence of changes in the DNA sequence.

“Genomic and Personalized Medicine: V1-2” by Geoffrey S. Ginsburg, Huntington F Willard
from Genomic and Personalized Medicine: V1-2
by Geoffrey S. Ginsburg, Huntington F Willard
Elsevier Science, 2008

This division can result in alterations of the genetic code by anything that can damage DNA (e.g., physical, chemical, or biologic factors; spontaneous mutations of genes; exposure to radiation).

“Pathology for the Physical Therapist Assistant E-Book” by Catherine C. Goodman, Kenda S. Fuller
from Pathology for the Physical Therapist Assistant E-Book
by Catherine C. Goodman, Kenda S. Fuller
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2016

Changes in individual genes can result in the transmission of altered genetic messages while changes at the chromosomal level can result in the transmission of abnormalities in chromosomal number or structure.

“Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety: The body, health care, management and policy, tools and approaches” by Jeanne Mager Stellman, International Labour Organisation, International Labour Office
from Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety: The body, health care, management and policy, tools and approaches
by Jeanne Mager Stellman, International Labour Organisation, International Labour Office
International Labour Office, 1998

this is because the information that determines body size and shape is contained in the genes people inherit from their parents.

“Nutrition: Science and Applications” by Lori A. Smolin, Mary B. Grosvenor
from Nutrition: Science and Applications
by Lori A. Smolin, Mary B. Grosvenor
Wiley, 2019

The variations that you inherit from your parents, mixed and matched, specify variations in cellular and developmental processes that ultimately result in variations in physiological states.

“The Gene: An Intimate History” by Siddhartha Mukherjee
from The Gene: An Intimate History
by Siddhartha Mukherjee
Scribner, 2016

Although individual genetic factors could be small differences in DNA sequences—single nucleotide polymorphisms or small insertions/deletions— in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, the overall genetic contribution to aging processes is polygenic and complex.

“Brocklehurst's Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology E-Book” by Howard M. Fillit, Kenneth Rockwood, Kenneth Woodhouse
from Brocklehurst’s Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology E-Book
by Howard M. Fillit, Kenneth Rockwood, Kenneth Woodhouse
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2010

For a particular person, the genome is almost identical in all of their cells, however, there are some mutations due to random events such as copying errors and the influence of external stresses such as exposure to toxins or radiation.

“Future Foods: How Modern Science Is Transforming the Way We Eat” by David Julian McClements
from Future Foods: How Modern Science Is Transforming the Way We Eat
by David Julian McClements
Springer International Publishing, 2019

that is determined by one’s genes or a change in the number or structure of the chromosomes.

“Building a Medical Vocabulary E-Book: with Spanish Translations” by Peggy C. Leonard
from Building a Medical Vocabulary E-Book: with Spanish Translations
by Peggy C. Leonard
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2017

An individual’s genetic makeup probably plays a part in determining the sizes and basic shapes of the patterns and ridges, but it is not the only factor.

“Forensic Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques, Second Edition” by Stuart H. James, Jon J. Nordby, Suzanne Bell, Jon J. Nordby, Ph.D.
from Forensic Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques, Second Edition
by Stuart H. James, Jon J. Nordby, et. al.
Taylor & Francis, 2005

Oktay Kutluk

Kutluk Oktay, MD, FACOG is one of the world's foremost experts in fertility preservation as well as ovarian stimulation and in vitro fertilization for infertility treatments. He developed and performed the world's first ovarian transplantation procedures as well as pioneered new ovarian stimulation protocols for embryo and oocyte freezing for breast and endometrial cancer patients.

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  • I’m competing in a Oahu regional science competition in February, with my main solo category being genetics and proteins. I saw at around 1:45 how there were heterozygous and homozygous combinations of alleles, I got super excited because now that I’ve spent so much time into researching, exercise science and anatomy isn’t my only strong subject. I just want to say that you’re a HUGE inspiration for me and I love your scientific work!❤️❤️ also I remember you mentioning in your PhD video you held multiple leadership positions for sports, what sports did you compete/do?

  • I am not sure what my Fitzpatrick level is, I assume it is between level I and II but I believe I am combination with a touch of sensitivity. I am a red head who was diagnosed with a treatable melanoma and I have noticed some skin damage starting to become more evident now I am in my early thirties. I also have thickening (hardening skin in one area on my forehead) that my derm says is not ulceration, scleroderma or any cancer from biopsies although solar keratosis, but that my skin concern is an enigma that is likely to be treatable with steroid injections.
    For me seeing a derm or a trained professional who can diagnose skin cancers is going to be added to my routine half yearly plan as well as being better with my sunscreen under my make up.

  • You can see in children the difference. My side of the family is pudgy but my husband’s side is thin. My children do not normally turn down food, ever. His (my step children) will happily go most of the day without eating or mentioning food. There’s definitely something in the brain that helps thin people to not desire food as much, or to be satisfied with much less. I’m not a scientists but it’s pretty obvious.

  • True my dad was skinny and my mom fat and both worked hard in tire factories. We all ate the same meals every day. My mom was big boned and fat all her life. I took after my mom with large bones and large calves that I could never wear boots even when I was young and thinner. My pants had to be tailored because my legs were too big even though I only weighed 225 lbs and was 6′ 8 inches tall..

  • Confused, can someone help me �� I have dark hair and eyes but extremely fair skin which usually burns, one parent is mixed the other is very white, do I sound like a 2? Lol

  • I think I’m lvl 3: light skin that can tan, rarely burns. Light brown hair and light Hazel-green eyes.
    However I have freckles, and I try not to get tan.

  • When you said you had a YouTube channel you weren’t kidding! Wowza! You’re videos are super interesting (even though I’m not a fitness person) and well done!! keep up the good work! And it was nice meeting you the other night ��

  • Can you do a work out for beginners into weightlifting for overall body video, and (I’m so demanding lol) an abdominal one as well… thanks love youuu����

  • Your ancestors ate deer, goat, cow, fish once or twice a day and they fasted many times a year.

    But we eat sugar and starch and canola oil and chemicals 5 times a day and NEVER fast.

  • Me, as a dark eyed/haired brazilian who burns by just thinking on going under the sun, dating a finn from the article circle who tans and has naturally darker skin than me: EXCUSE MR FITZPATRICK, DO YOU HAVE A MOMENT

  • I used to work at a medical spa and the head laser person joked that IF there was a zero, that would be me. See that profile pic? That’s SPF 50, UPF 50 hat and an umbrella at the beach. The head laser person would often ask me to be a volunteer for a treatment with new employee orientation. An hour not working and getting paid? Sure!

  • Speaking of DNA, have you considered taking an ethnicity DNA test? You’ve mentioned before that you’re half Thai, and I always wondered what your other half was. I hope this does not come across as offensive. Support, sister <3

  • I have combo skin with oily skin and acne/whiteheads/fungal acne/mila around my t zone and dry to normal skin around my c zone but I have some unevenness (teenie tiny bumps but skin coloured) at the sides of my face. My skin gets really red especially around my forehead and my cheeks are sensitive to most products so it’s really difficult to find a product for me. What’s worse is that I could be using a product for a few weeks and it’s fine but then it suddenly starts reacting with my skin even though I haven’t really changed anything. What I’ve found to help my skin is Avene’s thermal water, it helps with the sensitivity on my cheeks and I used to get flaky around my cheeks and mouth but not anymore, I spray it on about 2-3 times a day (after whenever I shower or wash my face) and just leave it on to absorb into my face or apply a moisturiser on top. Hope this helps anyone with similar skin!

  • I don’t know exactly which one I’m but I’m probably a type 3 or 4. I’ve dark hair, brown eyes and I tan easily, but I’ve had sunburns before.
    I have very dry skin, not sensitive and never had problem with acne, one or two pimples appear when I’m on my period but that’s it.

  • I really enjoyed this video a lot and I appreciate how you clearly display where your drawing your conclusions from. Sometimes other videos like these make assumptions without referencing their sources, but yours highlights the particular studies and research so it feels a lot more trustworthy and reliable.

  • I’ve always wondered about this. I wonder if genetic information companies like 23 and Me have an ability to see if an individual has the FTO gene in their DNA. Gonna check that out now. Thank you for your videos! I am learning lots about health and nutrition, thanks to you!

  • Heyyoooo! Hope you enjoy this video! I wanted to make this video as entertaining and easy to understand as possible, but if you want the nitty gritty science behind all of this, I’ve listed the papers I discuss on the FTO gene in the the description box! I’m actually heading to Hong Kong TOMORROW!! SO the next video will include my travel n’ such! If you are from Hong Kong or have been there, PLEASE leave me suggestions in the comments!! I’d REALLY appreciate it! Love you all so much! xoxo ��

  • Many studies concluded that many factors weighed (no pun intended) in the current obesity crisis we are witnessing.

    Those studies determined there are 7 causes whom lead to obesity (eating habits, exercising, genetics, sleep, etc.). But, genes isn’t the sole problem here.

    Which explains why the obesity rate went from less than 3% to 42% in the USA in less than 75 years.

    I was a former obese (I’ve lost 100 pounds since) and you have to work on what lead to your weight gain.

    Sorry for my English mistakes.

  • Thank you! GREAT info!! As you may know by now, COVID-19 severity correlates to skin type; the darker the complexion the higher the probability one has Vitamin D deficiency. Those with Fitzgerald Skin Type VI may have a 90% chance of D deficiency, and Skin Type I may have a 30% chance. This is not a surprise, melanin is a potent sunscreen that blocks UVB rays, thereby reducing conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to Vitamin D3. Since we stay indoors and since we are generally covered in fashion, most of our skin does not get sufficient sunlight. Thus, we need a daily dose (maybe 1000 IU) vitamin D3 (preferably vegan with no magnesium stearate nor silica). Allow 1 week for serum D levels to build up to optimal levels. NOTE 1: Vitamin D does not wash off skin when we shower; D is formed deep within the skin. NOTE 2: A healthy plant-based diet helps all skin types!

  • I honestly like you better now after you’ve found your set weight. I don’t believe everyone has a specific way they have to look like, I myself went through a thin phase to then regaining weight. But I just see you much more healthier now with a full face, a full curvy body and maybe you can find new ways of being fit that don’t necessarily aline with the “bikini competition” kind of fit. <3
    Much love <3 And props for taking care of your health!

  • Stephanie, I feel very discouraged. I’m what’s called skinny fat. I really feel defeated, I don’t know how to approach or fix this. Can you please make a video on this. I’ve looked up other videos, but they make me feel discouraged. I know that your content is something that I can really trust.

  • Your english is so clear! I’m a brazilian learning english and i just love to see your videos over and over again cause i love how i can understand everything you’re talking about. Besides you, your boyfriend and your videos are just amazing! Love u ��

  • Green (blue/grey) eyes, medium brown hair, type 3 probably, hardly ever burn, more tan. Normal-oily, a little sensitive, and starting to get lines on my forehead(I’m 31��). Routine as follows:
    Gentle cleanser, morning and night, followed by pure rose waterboth day and night, then niacinimide/tretinoin/tranexamic acidat night only. Lastly, a medium-rich moisturizer and spray zinc spf in the day. I’ll use a super rich moisturizer at night to combat my fine lines and the dryness of my medication.

  • I think we are genetically predisposed to a certain level of propensity for food. I have 4 cats, all are happy to “come to eat”, but the black cat always “stops” eating after half a can of cat food.
    The fatter cat cannot have enough and she eats other cats’ food. Children who are not “picky” about food tend to become fat latter in life. So, in some ways, one can say that if you were in
    an environment where food is limited.(eg three plain food meals in jail), you would tend to be skinny.

  • Thank you so much for taking the time to make this video! Very interesting info! You are incredible. One of my fav youtube stars fo sho!

  • Fitzpatrick scale is a 6. My skin is relatively oil balanced, however I’m acne prone due to hormonal/digestinal reasons. I’m also sensitive to certain acids but not in general ��

  • Thank you i was seriously thinking this was another damn excuse people can use to demotivate people to workout since everyone wants to follow like sheeps

  • I honestly find just knowing the Fitzpatrick scale exists quite comforting. I used to get teased for how easily I burned and how pale I was. I grew up around folks that would “get a base tan” before vacation, and I would just load on sunscreen, inevitably rub it out of my burning eyes, burn, and still be pale when the peeling was done. Not that I have a longing for a tan, but there is comfort in knowing it is a normal genetic thing, and I am not a freak that cannot tan.

  • Hi Stephanie! LOVE from Singapore! I am loving how you help break down scientific studies to bite size beneficial proven information for your viewers and I am learning so much from it! Currently blending fruits and veges are in such hype and there are many dichotomous opinions about it. I would love to get a clearer idea and understanding counting its calories and the limits to blending as a meal alternative. Have a good time in HK!! <3

  • I have normal skin, it doesn’t feel particularly oily or dry by the end of the day and it’s not sensitive. I had perfect skin for years but NOW I HAVE ACNE AND IDK WHAT TO DO. I’m still not particularly oily or sensitive tho.

  • Giiirl can i please be you? You are a doctor, stunningly beautiful, fit, succesfull on youtube and have such a cool personality too. You are awesome!

  • I feel dermatologists never bother to take the time to explain anything that’s going on with our skin. They are not helpful at least the ones I’ve been to.

  • On of my friends is on the bigger side of weight but she runs so much and eats healthy but she’s still the same.

    I like ur channel ��

  • Pollution, GMO’s, everyday chemicals, all can effect our endocrine system and in turn our body’s ability to work properly. Gaining weight, getting cancer (disease), etc.

  • I love how a study comes out from the University of Michigan that basically says “yes, obesity has genetic links” and all of the people in the comment section are angrily thin/fitsplaining how the UoM and this woman is wrong, this woman who is a scientist and has an M.D. Ph.D, that is, who has studied this kind of thing for years and yet somehow she is wrong! So hilarious! Sorry but I am going to believe this scientist over these fatphobic thin/fitsplainers.

  • Soon I vil be 17
    And I can’t believe hw I became so fat….I have a lot of thigh fat and bit Belly.
    I have been doing workout but it’s not working

  • Thanks for this video, you asked a few weeks or months ago about a video idea. I asked if you could make one about cortisol levels and how they can impact fat loss/gains. Not exactly brushing that specific topic but still very informative to me since I’ve al eww says been chubby as a child. Fat loss has always been a struggle for me. Anyway thanks for the video always really great science. Keep it up!

  • Obesity is 100% genetics. Fat people almost never lose weight and if they do they regain their “normal” weight in just a few short months.

  • My parents were fat, ate food common to the era, and were obese. I ate natural foods, exercised, and did not have HAVE THIS PROBLEM!

  • What if you’re like me? I NEVER wear makeup (unless lip balm and a swipe of lip color counts not now because of the masks we wear outside) and pretty much any skin care product works for me. I’m not terribly brand loyal when it comes to skincare. I use whatever my mom gives me she gets a lot of samples. I wash, use a toner, moisturize, and use sunscreen every day. I get occasional hormonal or stress related acne that usually clears up on its own. I have freckles and am similar to Lucy Liu in skin tone. I would say I’m normal to oily. Nothing really makes my skin freak out. I’ve done TERRIBLE things to my skin like those charcoal & glue masks! �� Even then, my skin was very forgiving. I don’t have wrinkles and I’m in my mid forties, but can pass for late 20s to early 30s. I chalk it up to good genes. Can it just be that?

  • I have combination skin. T zone is oily but not super oily and the rest is dry. I didn’t use much of a skin care routine. Only cleansed my face at night and used some kind of moisturizer. Now I have completely changed my routine. I honestly still don’t do anything in the morning �� but at night i wash my face with a facial mousse that doesn’t contain harsh sulfates but I still haven’t found a good one. I use rose water as a toner ( no alcohol ) then a the ordinary hyaluronic Acid, buffet and the Natural moisturizer. Sometimes the niacinamide. I tried to keep it as simple as possible and haven’t been testing around much. I don’t have acne but I do get some hormonal pimples. I never had issues even in my teenage times I had clear skin. My skin is still clear for the most part just seeing bigger pores and I do have whiteheads on the side of my nose. I also use the B oil as an occlusive after to seal in all the moisture.

  • Hi Stephanie! I love your videos! I’m in a class right now called lifestyle genomics and it’s all about the influence of genetics on obesity. Other topics we’ve talked about is pre-natal nutrition and how the foods that the mother eats during pregnancy can affect the genes (epigenome) of the fetus (specifically methylation) and can influence the risk of obesity and obesity related disease of baby for the rest of their life. Another new research area about ECS (and CB1 receptor), which are derived from omega-6 fatty acids, and how they influence appetite is very interesting. In class we also talked about gut bacteria and how the types of food you eat affects the way you digest food and influences hormone secretion (would be really awesome if you could do a video on that).
    Love your video!!

  • Stephanie, do you think you could review this article and give me feedback on whether or not it seems accurate please? I want to make an effort to improve my body composition as soon as possible.

  • Is there any chance you could make a video talking about why some people end up suffering with an eating disorder, and others never do. I always ask myself, why me?

  • I am confused. I have dark brown hair and brown eyes. My face is light and the rest of my body is different levels of light tan to medium tan. I get freckles but no sunbrns. I have been told tht my skin is really fair. Like anne hathaway. But again i get no sunburns. But i do get freckles. And if i spend enogh time in the sun i can get to a tan brown. Its like im a combination of 1 and 3 does that make me a 2? Or just 3 with freckles?

  • I love your videos! I love how articulate you are and enjoy the scientific research. I’ve always wondered why I tend to keep weight on so easily. Diet and exercise make it possible to keep a “normal” weight, but getting lean is so hard for me.

  • On the past years I’ve seen more and more studies pointing to the effects of gut bacteria on weight gain/loss. It would be interesting to see you explore this topic too:)

  • Japanese: go to Sushi Shin in Tai Hang for lunch Omakase best value for high end sushi (less than HKD500); Keyaki for skewers
    Chinese: Mott 32, Tsui Wah, Xiao Nan Guo, Maxim Palace, Tim Ho Wan, Hang Zhou Restaurant, Chiu Chow Garden; Xiao Yu Hotpot; As you like Chicken hotpot
    Fusion: Yardbird, Little Bao, Moyo, Bedu
    Western: Pici, Meats, Belon, Carbone, La Petite Maison
    Drinks: Sevva, Stockton, Bitters & Sweets, Please Don’t Tell, Lily & Bloom, Cassio

    Have fun!! PM me if you are looking for something specific and I’d love to help or show you around!

  • I have had one sunburn in my entire life so I’m prob somewhere on the fair side but also not at the extremes of the scale. I do get sun freckles on my shoulders that seem to stay forever once formed (ugh), so I recently started using sunscreen on face and shoulders.
    I have oily skin. My friends have commented on how “buttery”/soft my skin feels now that totally makes sense!!!! �� but it is prone to comedones and milia. I can’t go a day without chemical exfoliation or my pores get clogged. I haven’t figured out the forehead milia thing yet but I’m hoping Curology will help! Extracting milia by myself is kinda like creating craters on the face. �� I’m terrible at it.

  • Mannn, the ppl in these comments are extremely sensitive and petty for no good reason. Go find something better to do!

    This info is extremely valuable and important! Thank you Stephanie ����

  • Thank you so much for this!! I really love your scientific approach to fitness. You really back it up with hard evidence. This was a very interesting topic!!

  • I am around a 2-3, lol is 2.5 possible? I have dry/dry to combination skin type, combination in the summer, but dry in the winter.
    I have maturing and sensitive skin conditions.
    My sensitive skin usually leads to break outs, so would that mean acne prone as well?

    Thank you for this video I learned lot!!

  • I can’t understand what’s my skin tone people often say that I have very light skin but I have dark hairs and eyes and I burn easily but I also get tanned after getting in sun continuously for weeks and that could last for months.

  • I’ve been trying to lose weight for several years now, and I have had no progress. I tend only eat a meal a day (trying to control my portions while I am at it) and I go the gym or incorporate some sort of work out all most everyday of the week. Yet, with all of this I am losing nothing and it’s killing me inside. I can’t figure out what I am doing wrong. I’ve tried other things too. Starving myself, watching calories, working out for 2 hours straight and just eating several meals a day with small portions. Some were done really carefully, while other I couldn’t dedicate myself to them due to school and other duties (eating several meal with small portions). I am completely and utterly confused because all I want is to have smaller thighs and a generally flat stomach that doesn’t bulge out when I sit, forcing me to cover my stomach. I just want to feel comfortable in my own skin.

  • Am I the only one bothered by “susceptibility” being spelled incorrectly?

    For real though, love the content you put out, Stephanie!

  • As a scientist do you really think you can say any “question was answered”? Perhaps the phrase ‘that question was addressed’ would be more appropriate just a suggestion

  • 50% of the poorest people lives in India but no one cares about it
    Everyone wants a war against Pakistan, want a Temple in the name of lord Rama, want a leader of their own caste

  • Good video. Just FYI the hair/eye colour assumptions are largely irrelevant. You can have dark brown, even black, eyes/hair and very light skin, making you a II to III on the Fitzpatrick scale. This is common in Middle Eastern countries like Iran and even some Eastern European countries like Bulgaria. According to this video, I’m IV on the Fitzpatrick scale but aestheticians have confirmed I’m III.

  • LOVED this. I really appreciate the informative content you put outespecially gearing it towards women. The industry needs more like you! Keep up the great work babe! Xo

  • Here’s where it gets interesting b/c I am Indian & I am a 2/3 at most with acne prone sensitive combination skin; but I’ve jet black hair & eyes! India is an incredibly diverse country so it’s difficult to determine what your FP rating, is.

  • I think I am Type 1. The climate I live in is VERY humid in the summer (like 90% humidity some days) and dry and cold in the winter. Because of this, my skin is oily in the summer and more combination in the winter. I am also very acne prone but I am pretty sure this is hormonal acne from my IUD because my teen acne went away a year before I got it put in. My acne also seams to be better in the winter. My apartment also has very hard water and I heard that isn’t very good for skin and hair. I am quite sensitive and reactive (my skin goes red even if a light breeze goes past) and I find I have to slowly build up my tolerance to certain actives. My face really likes retinol right now (like a lot), it didn’t used to and I have had a few rashes in the past from over use. It loves niacinamide! I also love hyloronic acid, glycolic/lactic acid, and peptides. I find that sulfur dries me out very easily. My skin hates heavy creams, over washing and chemical sunscreens (especially around my eyes).

  • Also notice how she says “obesity correlates with a lot of other metabolic diseases”…correlation isn’t always causation, just seems like a rookie thing to say

  • I think I am type 1, but I might be type 2 because I do actually have a tan line where my watch is after this summer and my hair is reddish dark blonde/light brown…on the other hand I am pale af with light freckles and have blue/grey eyes. I always thought I was simply acne-prone and oily when I was younger and suffered from constant breakouts…but it turns out a lot of that was because my skin was actually quite sensitive. My favorite moisturizer now is either rosehip seed oil or marula oil since neither of them make my skin flare up.

  • Cassandra I have really dry skin around my eyes and it peels sometimes this is recent and any eye creams I put on burns�� HELP‼️‼️‼️

  • If the Fitzpatrick scale doesn’t change then I challenge you to look at pictures of me as a toddler (blonde hair, bluish green eyes and very fair), middle childhood (olive skinned, dark brown hair, hazel eyes, tanned easily ) and middle aged me (paler skin with some flushing, dark hair (before greying), some color but don’t tan easily) with darker hazel eyes

  • I am paper white, like really white, my son says he can see me when it’s pitch black in the room because I glow ��. I have hazel eyes, dark blond hair and I tan immediately, never burn. It looks like I’m type III even though I am very light. Is it possible ��

  • everyone is capable or gaining and loosing weight. energy in and energy out. you know eating and being active. if it is true that they say its genetics. then why don’t we see pictures of fat Jewish people in concentration camps in Nazi Germany???? and before u say they were not being fed. they were being fed, just very little. but oh wait what about genetics??? lol

  • Hi!!!!
    thank you for your videos!!!!!! I really would like a video on your PhD journey. One that gives advice, and also shares the challenges you have encountered, how you have planned your way there, anything that you would have done differently, or anything that you have done that was very useful. Is there any books you would recommend for master and PhD theses… how can we hunt for jobs while in school, how can we make great mentors and networking in order to open career avenues and/or career expansion (such as in the medical field). Furthermore, would you also be able to share tips on becoming an impressive scientist ����‍�� so that people don’t brush us away in job interview. Thank you so much for reading! I would really really really really extremely totally appreciate it if you take time for such videos. I am interested in cancer studies, I will be in a master of science in biomedical sciences program but I am aiming for a PhD. I am not sure if you are aware of Biomedical sciences, but anyways, I would love to learn from your experience! Thx �� �� ��

    P.S: I did watch the other science videos you made about that.

  • I have type 3 skin, fair skin when I m not exposed to sun and I tan easily to darker tones. I m wondering if using retinol will be a good idea for me knowing that I tan easily.

  • Surprisingly, I was correct about my skin type but I did think sensitivity was a type instead of condition. This changes everything!

  • No it’s because u sit on ur ass and eat cup cakes that say 100 cal when really there 400 and u know that but u want to feel better for a little amount of time but really over time u realise it’s eating u up from the inside but it’s too late and ur in a hospital bed with type 2 diebetes

  • interesting. I’m most definitely a 1 and always wondered why my skin is not fazed at all by retinol although it’s very reactive in general and as soon as I step into the sun, I turn red even if it’s just the sweat and not the burn, because I wear spf all the time. now it kinda makes sense.
    finally an advantage of being the palest person around.

  • I have a acne prone mostly oily type skin in all tend to have some dry patchen around mouth and nose during winter but a super oily eyelids and scalp
    I experience hormonal acne,and dysmenorrhea so hard for me to do skin care routine during that time,bcz i ll be bedridden for 2-3 days��

  • Hi, I absolutely love these more scientific videos, I’m learning so much from your channel!
    I was wondering, going back to cheat days, how does a huge cheat day affect a “typical” body (a normal body fat percentage, normal BMI) as a pose to low body fat, lean bodies such as yours? ☺

  • How about studying what all the people in your sample are eating rather than what their genes are? Obesity is a LIFESTYLE choice, not genetic.

  • I burn under the sun in like 10 mins. So this counts as easy burn? Am I type 2 or 3? I can get tanned tho.. It’s hard but I can do it �� (If I don’t shed the burned skin ��)

  • Me being type 4 wondering why after using acids and every aggressive product my skin looks like garbage, now discovering the truth like ������

  • I am a 17 yr old active teen, I play basketball, hockey and I workout almost everyday, but I still have more body fat than average teens. I don’t overeat. I eat 2-3 meals a day and drink water a lot throughout the day. I have been training since I was 10 and played hockey since I can remember, started playing pick up ball 3 yrs ago.

  • I had acne in my T zone in middle school which cleared up in high school, college until 30s. Then I started getting hormonal acne all around my chin and jaw line only that only cleared up with internal hormone Rx treatments from my doc and nothing topical. The sudden and stubborn jawline acne at 33 led my doctor to testing and diagnosing me with PCOS AGAIN!! So please ladies… I know skincare is important but please trust your inner worry. I have very fair skin that turns red from being touched but I dont scar or have huge issuesneith hyperpigmentation for very long. Buuuuttttt, by 29 I had had melanoma removed from 3 places 2 different times. All that tanning bed time in high school to help clear acne. And I won’t go out without less than 30+ SPF. I have gray blue eyes and fair skin, so I’m squarely in Fitzpatrick 1 or 2. There are soooo many conditions and concerns and body issues that it’s such a dumb idea to take anything more than just personal testimonials for how products for people, unless the person is educated and knows what they are doing. Skin shows so much about what our bodies are going thru on the inside… if only we know how to listen. Great video Cass. Love you to death lady.

  • Im combination skin, normal to dry. I get kind of oily on my forehead and temples by the end of the day. But the skin around my mouth gets dry. My cheeks tend to be normal.

    Funny thing is, my forehead and dry spots around my mouth never gets pimples. My pimples tend to pop up on my temples and lower half of my cheeks.

  • I have brown hair and hazel eyes, but very light skin that knows two states: super pale or sunburn. No such thing like a tan for me.

  • Seriously I would have loved to see someone like you when I was younger! What a great role model to young girls that smart is sexy! This is the content of yours I love watching!

  • Have no idea about my fitzpatrick number since I have very pale skin with lots of moles and freckles but very dark brown hair with dark brown eyes ��

  • i’m on birth control, my mom and dad have no problem gaining weight. My siblings can gain weight easily. I’m the only one who can’t get over 115 pounds. How do I gain weight?

  • Obesity is a choice. And in order to solve it and/or prevent it, discipline is needed. If you know your metabolism is weak and you gain weight easily, then don’t eat junk foods all the time. Only eat healthy foods and don’t eat large meals. Eat small portioned meals every 2-3 hours. Drink clean water. No drinks with sugars because sugar is your worst enemy. Either filter your own water or buy some fruits and make your own juice without any added sugar. Also, exercise regularly. Workout for AT LEAST 45 minutes. Anything less than that and you’re only burning 50 calories at most.

  • I don’t fit on the Fitzpatrick scale. I’m incredibly pale, with neutral skin. I burn very easily, but I don’t have many freckles. My hair is very dark ash blonde, and my eyes are hazel.

  • I’m a PhD student doing research on mindsets for health behavior change. Just shared your video with my colleagues! Definitely goes to show that a “fixed mindset” when it comes to blaming genetics for obesity is unsupported. Thank you for taking the time to put this together!!

  • Hey Stephanie! I just saw your video on your daily research experience and I just have some questions. I am currently a high school research and I have just begun to intern at a lab. I am participating in prostate cancer research and I was just wondering if you have some tips to help me adjust as I am just a mere high school student:( I obv don’t know as much so I am just wondering if you could give me some tips on netowrking and getting to know others in the lab!

  • What’s exactly the reason for having type 3 skin? I mean I must be a 3 like Ellen Page I guess because I have brown eyes and hair and I tan after I burn but my skin is still super white naturally especially since I’m rigorous about sunscreen so it ages quickly and is at the same risk of cancer. I have a bazillion moles, kelloids, fibrous growths on my skin that grow every year (the prominent ones on my face had to have laser removed). Even I constantly get growths on my eyelids and waterline that tear my eyes and hurt constantly. My acne scars. I’m constantly Vitamin D deficient even in summer and still paper white skin. It just seems there’s no benefit to my skin type at all. Why wasn’t it weeded out in natural selection I wonder? =_=

  • It could be ’cause of that the people of the former colonies became inferior and lacked self-respect.
    Most of them at Asia & Africa.
    They become poor because the system has been passed down from generation to generation like an endless vicious circle, like a hell.

  • Flitzpatrick 4, combination skin with oily tzone.My skin is sensitive to rough exfoliation(physical). Anyone with similar type? Please tell me your issues and tips.

  • I have maternal relatives specifically females that are quite physically fit and within the means as far as weight and height ratio goes as youngsters but somehow once they reach womanhood their bodies undergo extreme transformation into obese mode

  • There is only one thing, mathematically speaking that can possibly determine obesity levels: nutrition. Take a minute to think about that. All these studies are speculations.

  • im number1 3:15 but i dont have light hair my hair color is like tabacco but bit cold undertone, and my eyes are moss color and around pupil its yellowish (but my skin is very very light like i even had nickname “dead” in school) so you can be number 1 and still dont have red or blond hair

  • Thank you for the time and effort you put into this video. It was so informative�� Cannot wait to see what you get up to in Hong Kong��❤️

  • I’m pale af, but cool olive, I tend to have queloids, I don’t burn with the sun unless I stay too many hours without moving (something I don’t do since I hate the sun and the heat), I love exfoliating acids… Which one am I?

  • Type 1 normal skin w/acne & signs of maturing
    Or maybe combo but don’t really have problems with oil or dryness just acne ��‍♀️

  • If east asian (Japan, South Korea and China) have light or pale skin, black or brown eyes, black to brown hair, gets red acne and then left with brown acne pigmentation……which category of skin type they belong?

  • I’m a 6 on the Fitzpatrick scale and have dry skin from head to toe, but it has gotten better over the years. No dry patches on me anymore ��.

  • Omg what am i? I have brown to hazel eyes, brown hair on the roots and light brown on the ends, my skin is pale and i hardly ever tan, i sunburn rlly bad. Idk if my ethnicity matters, but i’m african (from north africa, that’s why my skin is super pale.).

  • Definetly 1, i burn inside with sun screen. Dry and acne prone skin with hype pigmentation. I’ve been watching tons of Cassandra’s videos and been thinking of geting retinoid and vitamin c to help with that. I feel like there isn’t really too much info about what to do with dry acne skin since niacinimide really dries out my skin xD. Lactic acid did nothing for me. Anyone else on this fun yacht?:’)

  • I’m 43 with mature, oily, acne prone, and sensitive skin! Wow that’s a lot. I’m just now working on my skin care. I never have before sadly. �� So any helpful tips would be much appreciated. ��

  • Obesity is NOT a metabolic condition, otherwise we would see obesity rates like the ones we see in America, everywhere in the world.

  • I believe I am 3, even though I have really dark eyes. 4 simply looks too dark to be my skin even with tan.
    I believe I have a combination, my face often feels oily and I have big pores (but since it runs in the family) it doesn’t botter me. I don’t have acknees but have black heads on nose and cheeks (where most of my big pores are). I believe that I have combination since sometimes when I put on foundation (I don’t put it on often) it starts shedding, like little leafs of detached skin (hard to explain in english). I still haven’t found anything that really helps. All cremes that I’ve ever used made my eyes red, and I’ve never saw any change when I used some product. My skin mostly is ok, I don’t have much problem with it, for dry feet I use one cream that I know works and for other parts have no need. Stil trying to find something for my face too look more fresh and smooth.

  • I feel like I am a type 1 or 2 (fair skinned and do burn and skin cancer runs in my family) but my hair is naturally dark brown and my eyes are also mostly brown sometimes hazel?

    I also have combination, acne prone, maturing, and sensitive skin. I have all the skin problems! help! ��

  • Fairly fair skin dark brown hair dark brown eyes doesn’t burn easily never actually burned before and when tanned go like a dirty brown
    Someone tell me what that would be on the Fitzpatrick scale

  • I have normal to dry skin, and it’s sensitive (I use to have rosácea). With the Fitzpatrick scale Im a 3 but with the conditions of the 4, which idk if it’s possible. I rarely get red and I can tan extremely easy and go really dark with it maybe because of my Italian ascendence

  • Is there a video talking about yourself? Sort of “100 facts about me” or something?
    I’m 18 and I’m in college. I’m studying biomedical engineering, and i feel like I dont have enough time to work out. I’ve been watching your videos and I’m amazed. You’re admirable, you’re such a brilliant girl.
    I hope you read my comment because I want to know more about you, specially I would like to know how to make time for everything. For having good grades, eat healthy, exercise, have fun, etc.
    I was looking for motivation and I have found it in you��….
    Greetings from Mexico girl!

  • I am Indian. 24. Fairer as compared to the average skin tone of my race. I have freckles which are highly unusual among us Indians. I have dark, jet black, eyes and hairs(Botticelli curls). During my teenage years, I didn’t quite care about my skin health. A harsh soap twice a day, before heading out to school and before bedtime, was all I used. Loved staying outdoors. Got tanned uniformly. Stayed indoors during vacations and I’d revert back to my skin tone(fairer, not tanned). As I grew up i started using calamine for my skin started to burn in the sun. We have had a major residence and lifestyle shift across the country. From a continental drier area with less access to meat and fish to a maritime river bank area with an abundance of fish. This shift happened before elementary school. I became vegetarian(not vegan coz milk is a household by-product, we domesticate and worship cows, cruelty is not required for dairy in India) and it’d be 4 years now that I have not had any meat fish or eggs. I don’t know what my skin is like, now. In my college days I noticed getting melasma type patches in my C zone. I used rice flour and milk mask for that and they were gone in like…..2 weeks. I became aware of my skin after that. Always used diy skincare. Masks made of fullers earth and sandalwood paste. Moisturizers made of an oil(olive or kumkumadi) and aloe gel. Scrub was chickpea flour. During my university because of all the stress I postponed my period twice for my exams. Got fibroadenomas and extreme acne all over my face. Still fighting the acne and the marks which remain there for months. Dermatologist put me on a omega 3 supplement and some products of his personal line. I am still getting weird and bad acne. I don’t know what to do.

  • Type 3 or 4 on the Fitzpatrick scale and combination skin dehydrated and dry. Never had acne, even as a teen, and now (28yo) have hormonal cystic acne around my mouth, chin and jawline

  • I’m in my late 30s and for the first time feel like I truly understand my skin more because of this video, so thank you!

    I believe I’m a 3 on the Fitzpatrick scale—my skin color is a mix of 2, 3, and 4. I burn when not wearing sunscreen and tan within 24-48 hours. After that initial beginning-of-summer base burn �� I mostly tan, though my tan has a richer warm/terra-cotta type hue.

    I’ve got brown (chestnut) hair and dark brown eyes. My father has black hair and brown eyes but is paler and burns—I’ve never seen him tan (northwest European/British isles heritage). My mother has green/gray eyes and chestnut hair, and I’ve never seen her sunburn, only tan. She’s Sicilian/Italian and Polish heritage. This mix of them leaves me still wondering if I have warm, cool, or neutral undertones after having watched endless videos and read loads!

    Grew up in a cool and humid climate, had oily/acne prone skin.
    Have lived in a cool desert for about 15 years now, in the Rocky Mountains with scorching hot summers and dry year round, and now my skin is more dry/combination. Dry out of shower and for hours after if I don’t moisturize (hard city water, but grew up on well water), but kind of oily in the T and C zones later in the day.

    Concerns—maturing skin (sun damage) though I have no wrinkles much at all. I notice my skin is more mature on my décolletage—most people actually think I’m about 10 years younger than I am!
    Biggest concern is SENSITIVE skin. My face always has a reddish pink undertone, which is why I have a hard time telling my undertones since the rest of my body doesn’t have that.

    I’m kind of product stupid, but I’ve been using Caudalie for a year now and keep trying different products, though have a decent routine with a few main products. They do give me really moisturized, dewy skin. Now that I’ve learned about ingredients binging on your videos today (and James Welsh), I’m going back to relook at the ingredients…

  • Fascinating! I never would have thought I was a Fitzpatrick 3, bc I’m usually very pale. But I have very dark eyes and hair, and I usually don’t burn much—I tan in the summer. I don’t think I’m somewhere between oily and dry… maybe “normal” when everything is balanced. But one thing I know— I’m SUPER sensitive. Sunscreen, face powder, nail polish, even my own sweat—all burn and leave me with either dermatitis or eczema (or a combo of both.) Thanks for the education!

  • I get very tan, I’m medium dark, my hair color is on the reddish side, people are always asking if I have bleached my hair and I tell them that its my natural hair colour.

  • I have type 1 skin, sever acne in my teens, still get acne (hormonal now) but my skin is now more mature, really dry and flaky but with acne on top so that seems to be weird combination. I love latic acid and trentinoin (vit. A) and i use a lot of oils like rosehip and vitamin E. it is really sensitive to as i end up with chemical burns far too often and general stinging with a lot of products. I HATE my skin and the dryness extenuates my wrinkles!

  • Some people just burn foods faster I guess. Me and my younger brother eat about the same amount of food around 3000-4000 kcal per day. But he’s 53 kgs @ 162cm and I’m 105kg @ 192cm.

  • can you please tell me if birth control can make it harder to lose thigh fat?? my thigh fat is so stubborn and i don’t proportionately lose weight from my thighs….my waist is 22 inches and my thighs are 19″ and 20″……. so i basically have two of my torsos as my legs. PLEASE HELP im sad

  • This video makes a lot of very large claims that don’t present all the realistic variables of what might be causing those…wouldn’t say this is accurate

  • I have combination skin, a little bit on the drier side and lV on the fitzPatrick scale,get occasional pimples and in my early 20’s. I am really confused about which cleanser and toner should I use!!!

  • I feel like I’m the only one with my skin type: my skin type is veeeeery oily, my scalp and hair are always oily (a nightmare), however I’m not prone to acne at all. I barely get pimples, usually only on my period but max 1 or 2 and very tiny. And i’m not sensitive, nor dry-skin or anything. My only problem is extremely oily skin, it looks as if it was wet, its insane. Therefore I gave up on make up because it doesn’t last on my skin more than an hour:(

  • Combination skin ( w/ sensitivity and minor wrinkles concerns) I’m skin type 4. I guess I can be considered to have a little lighter than a gold skin color. I have never gotten a sunburn. Even when I used no sunscreen instead I become a burnt potato.

  • Cassandra, I am a new subscriber and I just want to tell you that I really appreciate you sharing your expertise on skin! I have a better understanding thanks to you!!! Thank you so much ❤️❤️❤️❤️❤️❤️❤️❤️

  • I think I’m type 3 on the Fitzpatrick scale, oily or combination…not sure lol and acne prone. Which The Ordinary products do you suggest for me??

  • I am the curious one. I luck enough to just fins out i have normal skin. I thought my skin was dry, but after your explanation i realized that i dobt. I do feel my skin dry sometimes, but i never ever moisturize (im starting now at 33). I also feel that sensitive products works better for me, even though I necer had sensitive issues, they just seems gentle since i dont have big issues.
    Honestly, i never ever thought skin could be such a serious issue and I share love and compasion for those who suffers from it.

  • This was super interesting! I really do appreciate that you included your sources. I’m studying nutrition and might use this information later in class. Thanks Stephanie!

  • Maybe not because you are poor but due to changes in gene expression caused by methylation because some people are poor and they are perfectly ‘normal’ in their ways and some rich people are also affected. I think this field of study is epigenetic.