The way the Zika Virus Infects Its Way With the Placenta

 

Doctors puzzled by baby born with Zika virus

Video taken from the channel: CBS Evening News


 

Zika-infected couples should postpone pregnancy: U.S. health officials

Video taken from the channel: ARIRANG NEWS


 

Yale study identifies cells in human placenta that can carry Zika virus

Video taken from the channel: WTNH News8


 

Zika study says virus passes placenta to foetus

Video taken from the channel: AP Archive


FRIDAY, May 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) New research seems to shed light on how the Zika virus infects, but doesn’t kill, placenta cells. The mosquito-borne virus can cause severe birth defects in babies whose mothers are exposed to Zika during pregnancy, but scientists don’t know exactly how that happens. The researchers found that Zika can replicate in immune cells from the placenta without killing them. They said this may explain how the virus can pass through the placenta of a pregnant woman and.

Zika virus can infect and replicate in immune cells from the placenta, without killing them, scientists have discovered. The finding may explain how the virus can pass through the placenta of a pregnant woman, on its way to infect developing brain cells in her fetus. The results are published in.

Zika virus can infect and replicate in immune cells from the placenta, without killing them, researchers, including one of Indian-origin, have found. The finding may explain how the virus can pass through the placenta of a pregnant woman, on its way to infect developing brain cells in her foetus. New York: A team of researchers led by Indian-origin scientists have discovered that the deadly Zika virus can infect and replicate in immune cells from the placenta, without killing them. Two studies recently published in Cell showed, in experiments conducted on female mice, how Zika is able to cross the placenta, infect the fetus and cause microcephaly—insufficient development of.

Decreased oxygen levels in a placenta can impair fetal development and ultimately the health of a baby after birth. This artist’s image of a placenta shows how the Zika virus can affect a mother’s womb. The maternal blood vessels that feed into the placenta (A) become narrower and limit blood flow to the fetus.

Zika, on the other hand, is already active. It is released from an infected cell and then infects others, including placental cells that contact the fetal bloodstream. It can very quickly — and very early — reach fetal blood inside the developing placenta.

The two viruses are quite different from each other. An alternative hypothesis is that non-neutralizing, cross-reactive antibodies bind ZIKV and traffic across the placenta, through a neonatal Fc-receptor-mediated mechanism, to infect placental macrophages. Various cell types in the placenta are susceptible to infection with Zika virus. Specifically, observations of hydropic and hyperplastic chorionic villi, as well as the proliferation of Hofbauer cells, have been reported during infection with Zika virus [ 12 ].

List of related literature:

Placental pathology of Zika virus: Viral infection of the placenta induces villous stromal macrophage (hofbauer cell) proliferation and hyperplasia.

“Pregnant in the Time of Ebola: Women and Their Children in the 2013-2015 West African Epidemic” by David A. Schwartz, Julienne Ngoundoung Anoko, Sharon A. Abramowitz
from Pregnant in the Time of Ebola: Women and Their Children in the 2013-2015 West African Epidemic
by David A. Schwartz, Julienne Ngoundoung Anoko, Sharon A. Abramowitz
Springer International Publishing, 2019

Zika virus infection induces apoptosis of trophoblasts in the first trimester, and produces enlarged, hydropic chorionic villi, immature villi, and proliferation of Hofbauer cells (fetal macrophages), but no villous necrosis.189

“Chestnut's Obstetric Anesthesia E-Book” by David H. Chestnut, Cynthia A Wong, Lawrence C Tsen, Warwick D Ngan Kee, Yaakov Beilin, Jill Mhyre, Brian T. Bateman, Naveen Nathan
from Chestnut’s Obstetric Anesthesia E-Book
by David H. Chestnut, Cynthia A Wong, et. al.
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2019

Studies in mice with immune defects suggest that Zika virus replicates initially in the placenta followed by infection of the fetus, and that viral replication occurs in neural precursor cells, leading to reduced brain size and thinning of the cortex.

“Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease E-Book” by Vinay Kumar, Abul K. Abbas, Jon C. Aster
from Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease E-Book
by Vinay Kumar, Abul K. Abbas, Jon C. Aster
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2020

Zika virus is transmitted via mosquito bite, transfusion of blood products, sex, and maternal-fetal route.

“Rheumatology Secrets E-Book” by Sterling West, Jason Kolfenbach
from Rheumatology Secrets E-Book
by Sterling West, Jason Kolfenbach
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2019

The virus spreads through the bloodstream, it can infect and replicate in the placenta, it then reaches the fetus, where it persistently infects cells, inducing a decreased growth rate.

“Neonatology: A Practical Approach to Neonatal Diseases” by Giuseppe Buonocore, Rodolfo Bracci, Michael Weindling
from Neonatology: A Practical Approach to Neonatal Diseases
by Giuseppe Buonocore, Rodolfo Bracci, Michael Weindling
Springer Milan, 2012

Zika virus detected in amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood in an in vitro fertilization-conceived pregnancy in Venezuela.

“Male Infertility: Contemporary Clinical Approaches, Andrology, ART and Antioxidants” by Sijo J. Parekattil, Sandro C. Esteves, Ashok Agarwal
from Male Infertility: Contemporary Clinical Approaches, Andrology, ART and Antioxidants
by Sijo J. Parekattil, Sandro C. Esteves, Ashok Agarwal
Springer International Publishing, 2020

In mice, the virus infects the placenta, where it persists and spreads to the fetus despite the development of maternal antibody.

“Principles of Gender-specific Medicine” by Marianne J. Legato, John P. Bilezikian
from Principles of Gender-specific Medicine
by Marianne J. Legato, John P. Bilezikian
Elsevier Academic Press, 2004

The ability of viruses to spread from the infected mother to the fetus arises from the structure of the placenta, which anchors the fetus to the uterus.

“Joints and Connective Tissues: General Practice: The Integrative Approach Series” by Kerryn Phelps, Craig Hassed
from Joints and Connective Tissues: General Practice: The Integrative Approach Series
by Kerryn Phelps, Craig Hassed
Elsevier Health Sciences APAC, 2012

As in other viruses, PPV1 could reach the fetus in one of three ways: in body fluids, such as blood or lymph; by progressive replication through continuous placental cell layers; or in cells, such as macrophages or lymphocytes (Mengeling et al. 2000).

“Diseases of Swine” by Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Locke A. Karriker, Alejandro Ramirez, Kent J. Schwartz, Gregory W. Stevenson, Jianqiang Zhang
from Diseases of Swine
by Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Locke A. Karriker, et. al.
Wiley, 2019

The placenta also contains phagocytes and lymphocytes and produces cytokines such as interferon.39 The organisms most commonly transferred across the placenta are Listeria monocytogenes, Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), parvovirus B19, rubella, Toxoplasma gondii, and cytomegalovirus (CMV).114

“Maternal, Fetal, & Neonatal Physiology4: Maternal, Fetal, & Neonatal Physiology” by Susan Tucker Blackburn
from Maternal, Fetal, & Neonatal Physiology4: Maternal, Fetal, & Neonatal Physiology
by Susan Tucker Blackburn
Elsevier Saunders, 2012

Oktay Kutluk

Kutluk Oktay, MD, FACOG is one of the world's foremost experts in fertility preservation as well as ovarian stimulation and in vitro fertilization for infertility treatments. He developed and performed the world's first ovarian transplantation procedures as well as pioneered new ovarian stimulation protocols for embryo and oocyte freezing for breast and endometrial cancer patients.

Mail: [email protected]
Telephone: +1 (877) 492-3666

Biography: https://medicine.yale.edu/profile/kutluk_oktay/
Bibliography: oktay_bibliography

View all posts

1 comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

  • Zika does not cause birth defects. It was the Government in Brazil contaminating their water. Zika is a cover up, since it is easy to blame something that can not be controlled. What are there no birth defects in neighboring countries. Or even rich people in Brazil. Only poor people in certain areas in Brazil are having babies with birth defects.