Another COVID Risks How Race, Earnings, Zipcode Influence Who Lives Or Dies

The Other COVID Risks: How Race, Income, ZIP Code Influence Who Lives Or Dies How Race, Income, ZIP Code Influence Who Lives Or Dies. The Other COVID Risks: How Race, Income, ZIP Code Influence Who Lives Or Dies. How Race, Income, ZIP Code Influence Who Lives or Dies From COVID-19 Public health experts contend that social and economic conditions are powerful indicators of. The other COVID-19 risk factors: How race, income, ZIP code can influence life and death. Overall, African Americans with COVID-19 lived in ZIP codes with lower income compared to all other racial/ethnic groups (p < 0.001).

Among confirmed COVID-19 cases, 51 patients died (mean age: 79. These tracts are surveyed by the U.S. census each year for their defining social characteristics, which number in the hundreds of categories, including income, ethnic identity, age, and race. New York City does not provide COVID-19 death rate data for these smaller tracts, but we applied the death rate for each ZIP code to each of the census.

New York City has been the American city hit hardest by the COVID-19 pandemic. Not all New Yorkers are equally at risk; age has been a serious risk factor, and nearly 75% of New Yorkers who have died from COVID-19 were 65 and over. Race and class also influence infection and mortality rates: Black and Latino city residents have died from COVID-19 at twice the rate of White or Asian New. The other COVID-19 risk factors: How race, income, ZIP code can influence life and death Just next door, in 32216, which is home to the St. Vincent’s Southside hospital and Memorial Hospital.

The following maps show COVID-19 outcomes (i.e. Cumulative Incidence and Percent Positive Tests) for ZIP codes in Philadelphia as of May 15, 2020. The map below shows cumulative incidence of COVID-19 by ZIP code in Philadelphia as of May, 15, 2020.

COVID-19 rates ranged from 43.6 to 281.2 cases per 10,000 residents. § “Other” race includes American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, or Other. ¶ Selected underlying medical conditions known to increase the risk for severe COVID-19 were obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and any type of cancer.

List of related literature:

ZIP-code-based versus tract-based income measures as long-term risk-adjusted mortality predictors.

“Journal of the National Cancer Institute: JNCI.” by National Cancer Institute (U.S.), National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
from Journal of the National Cancer Institute: JNCI.
by National Cancer Institute (U.S.), National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, 2010

Automobile and life insurance meet the criteria of large numbers, but the homogeneity of the risk class is doubtful; fire and workman’s compensation insurance (and a fortiori insurance against catastrophes like floods) must often pay for disasters that destroy the assumption of independence.

“The Empire of Chance: How Probability Changed Science and Everyday Life” by Gerd Gigerenzer, Zeno Swijtink, Theodore Porter, Lorraine Daston
from The Empire of Chance: How Probability Changed Science and Everyday Life
by Gerd Gigerenzer, Zeno Swijtink, et. al.
Cambridge University Press, 1990

On voluntary risk: an urban dweller may move to the suburbs because of a lower crime rate and better schools, at the cost of more time spent traveling on highways and a higher probability of accidents.

“Risk and Culture: An Essay on the Selection of Technological and Environmental Dangers” by Mary Douglas, Aaron Wildavsky
from Risk and Culture: An Essay on the Selection of Technological and Environmental Dangers
by Mary Douglas, Aaron Wildavsky
University of California Press, 1983

When a number of variables including crime, factory workers, and trucks per capita, pawnbroker lending, quake damage, population density, and area of each precinct were held constant, the best predictors of strong population growth were the measures of social capital.

“Building Resilience: Social Capital in Post-Disaster Recovery” by Daniel P. Aldrich
from Building Resilience: Social Capital in Post-Disaster Recovery
by Daniel P. Aldrich
University of Chicago Press, 2012

They have important socioeconomic impacts including healthcare, insurance, damage to property and the loss of life.

“The Geography of Transport Systems” by Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Claude Comtois, Brian Slack
from The Geography of Transport Systems
by Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Claude Comtois, Brian Slack
Taylor & Francis, 2013

Contagion (or epidemic) theories posit that risky behaviors, which are more common in low socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhoods, will influence community members who might not see these same behaviors or factors in their own households (Crane, 1991).

“Handbook of Life-Span Development” by Lawerence K.W. Berg, PhD, Esq., Karen L. Fingerman, PhD, Toni C. Antonucci, PhD, Jacqui Smith, PhD, Cynthia Berg, PhD
from Handbook of Life-Span Development
by Lawerence K.W. Berg, PhD, Esq., Karen L. Fingerman, PhD, et. al.
Springer Publishing Company, 2010

Probability distributions, Levy flights, and PML risks apply to biological threat–asset pairs such as global pandemics—or threats of pandemic—just as they apply to other natural disasters.

“Critical Infrastructure Protection in Homeland Security: Defending a Networked Nation” by Ted G. Lewis
from Critical Infrastructure Protection in Homeland Security: Defending a Networked Nation
by Ted G. Lewis
Wiley, 2019

For instance, a family with a low income level might have difficulty evacuating unless family or friends live nearby to assist; the social network reduces vulnerability.

“Social Vulnerability to Disasters” by Deborah S.K. Thomas, Brenda D. Phillips, William E. Lovekamp, Alice Fothergill
from Social Vulnerability to Disasters
by Deborah S.K. Thomas, Brenda D. Phillips, et. al.
Taylor & Francis, 2013

In terms of both occupational injuries and deaths, the finance, insurance, and real estate industries are safest, while oc

“Social Issues in America: An Encyclopedia” by James Ciment
from Social Issues in America: An Encyclopedia
by James Ciment
Taylor & Francis, 2015

They have important socio­economic impacts including healthcare, insurance,damage to property and lossoflife.

“The Geography of Transport Systems” by Claude Comtois, Brian Slack
from The Geography of Transport Systems
by Claude Comtois, Brian Slack
Taylor & Francis, 2009

Oktay Kutluk

Kutluk Oktay, MD, FACOG is one of the world's foremost experts in fertility preservation as well as ovarian stimulation and in vitro fertilization for infertility treatments. He developed and performed the world's first ovarian transplantation procedures as well as pioneered new ovarian stimulation protocols for embryo and oocyte freezing for breast and endometrial cancer patients.

Mail: [email protected]
Telephone: +1 (877) 492-3666

Biography: https://medicine.yale.edu/profile/kutluk_oktay/
Bibliography: oktay_bibliography

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