Your Preemie’s Defense Mechanisms

 

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Expensive medicine puts preemies at risk

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According to a new study published in March 2020 in the journal Nature Communications, babies born prematurely up to 32 weeks of pregnancy can quickly catch up on their immune system. FRIDAY, Sept. 26, 2014 (HealthDay News) A baby’s immune system is stronger than previously thought, a new study indicates.

Researchers analyzed blood samples collected from 28 very. It causes your immune system to pump out white blood cells and chemical messengers that keep your defenses actively engaged 24/7. “It’s almost like you’re using all the immune system’s. This means that a 2-week-old baby’s immune system can’t fight viruses or bacteria nearly as well as a 3-month-old infant’s can.

On the bright side, the mother’s immune system does continue. By Robert Preidt. HealthDay Reporter. FRIDAY, Aug.

24, 2018 (HealthDay News) A baby’s immune system kicks into high gear immediately after birth, a new study finds.. Changes in a. That means your preemie won’t act like a full-term newborn until at least his due date (and possibly not even then, if his development was hindered by his immature neurological system). So if your. Like other body systems, the immune system of a premature infant does not work as well as that of older kids or adults.

This places preemies at risk for getting infections (especially viral ones) after discharge. Typically, medically stable preemies. WEDNESDAY, March 11, 2020 (HealthDay News) Premature infants’ immune systems develop at a rate similar to full-term infants, a new study finds.

British researchers tracked immune system development in babies born before 32 weeks, including identifying different immune. “Just as the immune system is so complex, all of the things that affect it are so complex.” Immunity is largely shaped by genetics, for instance, which means that what your children do or don. Because when it comes to how the immune system develops, “there’s so many things to consider,” said Ruchi Singla, M.D., a pediatric allergist and immunologist at the University of Chicago.

List of related literature:

Children are born with a cellular mediated immune system (Th1 cells), a humoral immune system (Th2 cells), and a regulator immune system (Th3 cells) as major pieces of their overall immune systems.

“AIDS, Opium, Diamonds, and Empire: The Deadly Virus of International Greed” by Nancy Turner Banks
from AIDS, Opium, Diamonds, and Empire: The Deadly Virus of International Greed
by Nancy Turner Banks
iUniverse, 2010

most of these secondary immune problems in the premature infant are related to innate immune dysfunction that include breaks in skin and mucus membrane integrity, nutritional deficiencies, exposure to nosocomial infectious agents and exposure to frequent procedures and broad-spectrum antibiotics.

“Textbook of Interdisciplinary Pediatric Palliative Care E-Book: Expert Consult Premium Edition” by Joanne Wolfe, Pamela Hinds, Barbara Sourkes
from Textbook of Interdisciplinary Pediatric Palliative Care E-Book: Expert Consult Premium Edition
by Joanne Wolfe, Pamela Hinds, Barbara Sourkes
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2011

The maternal antibodies, developed by exposure to antigens and subsequent creation of an antibody defense system, provide temporary protection to the newborn, but preterm newborns are born before the majority of maternal antibodies are transferred from the maternal circulation.

“Comprehensive Neonatal Nursing Care: Fifth Edition” by Carole Kenner, PhD, NNP, FAAN, Judy Wright Lott, DSN, RN, BC-NNP, FAAN
from Comprehensive Neonatal Nursing Care: Fifth Edition
by Carole Kenner, PhD, NNP, FAAN, Judy Wright Lott, DSN, RN, BC-NNP, FAAN
Springer Publishing Company, 2013

exposure occurs during the time maternal antibodies are circulating in the neonates’ blood and thereafter as those antibodies clear from the system and the infants’ own immunologic systems assume full responsibility for resistance to disease.

“Mucosal Immunology” by Jiri Mestecky, Michael E. Lamm, Pearay L. Ogra, Warren Strober, John Bienenstock, Jerry R. McGhee, Lloyd Mayer
from Mucosal Immunology
by Jiri Mestecky, Michael E. Lamm, et. al.
Elsevier Science, 2005

Newborns develop a Th1-type immune Siegrist, C.A.

“Vaccines for Biodefense and Emerging and Neglected Diseases” by Alan D.T. Barrett, Lawrence R. Stanberry
from Vaccines for Biodefense and Emerging and Neglected Diseases
by Alan D.T. Barrett, Lawrence R. Stanberry
Elsevier Science, 2009

Pathophysiology Although infants are protected by maternal antibodies transferred across the placenta during the third trimester, compared with older children or adults, the neonatal immune system is still deficient.

“Conn's Current Therapy 2015 E-Book” by Edward T. Bope, Rick D. Kellerman
from Conn’s Current Therapy 2015 E-Book
by Edward T. Bope, Rick D. Kellerman
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2014

Infants below the age of 6 weeks may be relatively protected by maternal IgG. hMPV is a relatively recently recognized viral pathogen that is responsible for infant bronchiolitis in 5% to 15% of cases.

“Thoracic Imaging: Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Radiology” by W. Richard Webb, Charles B. Higgins
from Thoracic Imaging: Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Radiology
by W. Richard Webb, Charles B. Higgins
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010

Thus, it will be important to apply our knowledge of innate and adaptive immunity to provide better protection against L. monocytogenes infection for individuals who are—for example, during pregnancy or immunosuppression— at an increased risk of listeriosis-related morbidity and mortality.

“Handbook of Listeria Monocytogenes” by Dongyou Liu
from Handbook of Listeria Monocytogenes
by Dongyou Liu
CRC Press, 2008

At birth the immune system is underdeveloped, and newborn babies for the first few months of life have to rely on the antibodies passed from the mother via the placenta.

“Applying the Roper-Logan-Tierney Model in Practice E-Book” by Karen Holland, Jane Jenkins
from Applying the Roper-Logan-Tierney Model in Practice E-Book
by Karen Holland, Jane Jenkins
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2019

The immune bias in utero and in infancy is toward a type 2 helper T-lymphocyte (TH2) –directed immune response, which is the immune pathway required for the expression ofallergic disease.

“Goldman's Cecil Medicine,Expert Consult Premium Edition Enhanced Online Features and Print, Single Volume,24: Goldman's Cecil Medicine” by Russell La Fayette Cecil, Lee Goldman, Andrew I. Schafer
from Goldman’s Cecil Medicine,Expert Consult Premium Edition Enhanced Online Features and Print, Single Volume,24: Goldman’s Cecil Medicine
by Russell La Fayette Cecil, Lee Goldman, Andrew I. Schafer
Elsevier/Saunders, 2012

Oktay Kutluk

Kutluk Oktay, MD, FACOG is one of the world's foremost experts in fertility preservation as well as ovarian stimulation and in vitro fertilization for infertility treatments. He developed and performed the world's first ovarian transplantation procedures as well as pioneered new ovarian stimulation protocols for embryo and oocyte freezing for breast and endometrial cancer patients.

Mail: [email protected]
Telephone: +1 (877) 492-3666

Biography: https://medicine.yale.edu/profile/kutluk_oktay/
Bibliography: oktay_bibliography

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37 comments

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  • There will not be any pathogens on my Christian Minecraft Server!

    Summon the Leukocytes!
    Summon the Phagocytes!
    Summon the Neutrophils!
    Summon the Macrophages!
    Summon the Dendritic Cells!
    Summon the Antigens!
    Summon the Lymphocytes!
    Summon the fluid combination of acetaminophen, dextromethorphan, guaifenesin, phenylephrine HCl, anhydrous citric acid, edetate disodium, FD&C blue no. 1, FD&C red no. 40, glycerin, propyl gallate, propylene glycol, purified water, sodium benzoate, sorbitol, sucralose, trisodium citrate dihydrate, and xanthan gum.

    Body: Sir the battle is getting out of hand!

    Doctor: Want to try a new prototype treatment plan?

    Person: Sure.

    Doctor: Summon the bacteriophages!

    Body: Sir unidentified projectiles entering the bloodstream!
    Also Body: What are they?
    Body: It appears to be some sort of Bacteriophages!
    Also Body: WTH IS THAT!

    Bacteriophages: Initiating SAD* protocol.

    BOOM

    * SAD = Search And Destroy

  • You are my go-to guy when it comes to understanding biology! Absolutely love how you explain how stuff works, and who doesn’t love a little humor?

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  • So according to Hank, if your body is a theme park, then the good bacteria inside of you are innocent customers, and the pathogens are entitled parents who want to make you “a factory for their children.” So next time you visit a theme park and meet entitled parents, remind them of their similarities to pathogens.

  • My Immune system: * increases temperature to kill pathogens*
    Me: * increases the temperature of my room even more*
    My Immune system: Well, thank you

  • i can tell you right now that i’m gonna have some action thriller going on in my head the whole way through my exam cuz phacocytes are james bond and if the examiner disagrees… well its their lack of knowledge.

  • I thought the concept was brilliantly explained (yanno, with vocals) but it would’ve helped if there were little animations of the cells interacting with each other to demonstrate the message, and to sort of assign icons with names. It is a bit confusing. But if I were to watch this five times in a row I think I’d start to obtain all the crucial details.

  • I just noticed that while watching this I got a YouTube recommendation
    to watch the Phish vid “Down with disease”.
    Is that a lazy algorithm or what?

  • This is the real solution that those who want to strengthen thier immune system and defend the body against deseases.

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  • me in my exams attempting to answer any microbiology question after watching this twice pretending i was watching thriller comedy:
    -So the natural killers are patrolling the area checking up until some wierdo turns up IT PULLS OUT ITS AK47 AND UNLOADS.
    -Admiral T cells are underrated and we need to praise them for there hardships.
    -Dendrites: likes to hang out on my surfaces and carry intelligence about what happening at the warfront, waiting for the macrophages which are just as talented to write lovely poems and store them on a shelf.
    ‘super elite double-secret strike force delta’

    im telling you now A*’s are on their way!!!!!

  • So if you’ve had an infection from something particularly bad like MRSA but you’re able to get over it with antibiotics, will your acquired immune system remember it?

  • I wish there were more animations like 12:50 in the video. The verbal explanations were fantastic but more animations of the cells like at 12:50 would’ve helped me piece together information even more!:)

  • 우리의 몸에 시스템이 이렇게 복잡한줄은 몰랐습니다. 내가 싫어했던 면역반응들이 우리 몸을 돕기위한 것이라는 것이 놀라웠습니다. 다음에 열이 나거나 붓는 것은 나의 몸이 나를 돕는것이라고 생각하며 고마워해야 겠습니다. 이번 영상에서 많은 것을 배웠습니다. 감사합니다.

  • Isn’t it ironic how this guy died of the swine flu shortly after this video?! I guess he should have been worried about petting those pigs after all ☹️

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  • Everyone watch Osmosis Jones it tells you about the body and your cells and bacteria. It is also funny too. There is a movie for you.

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  • Crash Course Video’s I’m Watching During the Cornavirus Outbreak:
    Crash Course Biology #32 (2012)
    Crash Course World History #203 (2014)
    Crash Course A&P #45 (2015)
    Crash Course Sociology #42 (2018)
    Crash Course Sociology #43 (2018)

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  • I started talking about cells at work to my Dad and he asked me a lot of questions that I couldn’t answer and then sent me this XD

  • End of Season 1: The terrorist group of the phagocytes were successfully eliminated, the only thing remaining the memory cells. It is the funeral of the lymphocytes that died honorably in battle.
    “Sir, you have to take a look at this”
    “Can’t you see I am busy-” “Sir, we have a more dangerous terrorist group that is infiltrating our headquarters”
    “The headquarters? Don’t tell meThe DNA of the special ops; the lymphocytes?”
    “Yes, the figured out our messaging system, the RNA, they are using it to stop the production of Antibodies”
    Silence
    “This lowers the amount of lymphocytes we have-“, “Yes”
    “This could lead to the destruction of our whole organisation, the ISImmune System, this means we could face our ghost protocol, What is the name of the terrorist group?”
    “HIV”
    Continued in Season 2

  • Thanks for sharing this detailed overview of the immune system. To learn more about the importance of strengthening the immune system, especially for seniors, this article is helpful: https://awareseniorcare.com/strengthen-your-immune-system/

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  • Immune system: * Does all the work without me knowing and saves me from possible death *
    Me: changed the language on my phone to Japanese and cant change it back.

  • I feel this video is actually more helpful to me than the CraschCourse A&P version of the Immune system. Idk why, is it just me or anyone else too feel the same thing?

  • Taking the best from Dr Joel Fuhrman, Dr Michael Greger etc etc and pushing this even further…

    Give this Facebook Group a go…

    https://m.facebook.com/groups/553235201434948/

  • I remember learning about antibodies when I was like seven years old. I cannot believe I forget such basic information over time. To keep this very basic information about the immune system alive in my memory I will make a note here.

    Antibodies are proteins produced to the body to destroy invading cells. They are due to the work of B and T Cells. B and T Cells identify antigens they can use that information so that they can swiftly respond and deploy antibodies when a threat revisits. That is how the human body can develop immunity to certain diseases, like chickenpox.

    Autoimmune diseases trick the body into attacking their own cells.

  • Gosh, this is so good, I have sent it to patients for years, since it first came out! So impowering to the normal / average Human:)

  • all true yett viruses exist in body and do no damidge all pasrt of human biome its wayyyy more complext the exseprts have wroked out yet

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  • I have an inquiry to:
    -can you make a video on how exercise helps our immune system. Certain people have a notion that when we exercise intensely (maybe moderately) enough to sweat, the heat generated kills off any pathogens & the likes. I feel it’s an exaggeration, so it’s not entirely wrong.
    -secondly, does this video mean to imply that sickle cell patients have weaker immune systems? Or is there something else that makes them so vulnerable? I need to understand these things better.
    Thank you

  • Thank you so much to everyone who has chosen to support our nonprofit mission on Patreon.com/teded! If you want to learn more about how to get involved, check out our Patreon page!

  • For muslim all of creation of such a complex system requires the master that has all information about immune system, cells their strategy and so on. How the non thinkable cells protect our body. Their Master is the only one who has the ability to think and has a knowledge about ecerything. In islam we call it “ALLAH”

  • Kind of seems like a lot of people have forgotten how this ‘immune system’ if that is in fact what it is (sarcasm) works. We’ve been doing this for what, 40k years? All of a sudden no one is allowed to get sick. No one is allowed to adapt their immune systems to a new pathogen naturally. Mental health is suffering.

  • Learned most of this stuff from the anime cells at work, if you are looking for an eduactional anime I highly recommend: Dr. stone and cells at work.