The Genetic Relationship Between Identical Twins


Is There Love between These Two Identical Twins?

Video taken from the channel: Face The Truth TV


Two Sets of Identical Twins Got Married but Wait till You Hear About Their Future Plans

Video taken from the channel: Facts Verse


Beyond our genes: Identical with one big difference: Kris & Maren Hallenga at TEDxKingsCollegeLondon

Video taken from the channel: TEDx Talks


Are Identical Twins Genetically The Same

Video taken from the channel: Health Is Wealth


Twin-Tuition: A Telepathic Connection?

Video taken from the channel: ABC News


The Difference Between Identical and Fraternal Twins

Video taken from the channel: Riya Doshi


Strange Facts You Never Knew About Twins

Video taken from the channel: Grunge

Which is why identical twins are also called monozygotic. Since you both have the same DNA, this is almost like the two sets of children have the same moms but different dads. In fact, this is why at the DNA level they are really more like half siblings instead of first cousins.

They share 25% of their DNA (and genes) instead of the usual 12.5%. Identical twins share all of their genes and are always of the same sex. In contrast, fraternal, or dizygotic, twins result from the fertilization of two separate eggs during the same pregnancy. They share half of their genes, just like any other siblings. Fraternal.

Among identical twins, 80 percent of those surveyed reported feeling closer and more familiar with their twin than they did to their best friends, suggesting a strong genetic. To add to Jonathan Shearer’s succinct and excellent answer, if two sets of identical twins had children, their children, while legally first cousins, would genetically be full siblings! Both mothers are identical, and both fathers are identical, so the genetic result would be the same as if there were a single father and mother. Monozygotic (identical) twins share all of their genes, while dizygotic (fraternal) twins share only about 50 percent of them. So, if a researcher compares the similarity between sets of identical twins to the similarity between sets of fraternal twins for a particular trait, then any excess likeness between the identical twins should be due to genes rather than environment.

Identical twins are identical, right? After all, they derive from just one fertilized egg, which contains one set of genetic instructions, or genome, formed from combining the chromosomes of mother. There is an overfocus on twins as subjects in genetic vs. environmental research.

Ironically, even today after living through the ups and downs of my life as a twin in a non-twin world, my twin. Identical twins share the same set of genes, such as ones for thick eyelashes or a pointy nose – as well as the genes that boost risk for diseases. But. There is a common misconception that identical twins have identical DNA and, though they begin development with a matching genetic blueprint, differences in gene expression throughout life means that they differentiate more and more as they age.

Though still more similar than ordinary siblings, they are no longer as identical as one may believe. Identical twins, also known as monozygotic, are those who originate when only one sperm cell fertilizes one egg. This zygote (the egg along with the sperm cell) divides into two, forming two embryos with the same genetic material.

This results in two identical siblings that are born at the same time.

List of related literature:

Since identical twins (called monozygotic twins since they develop from one fertilized egg called a zygote) share all the same genetic material, researchers study them in order to examine the influence of genes on human traits.

“Barron's AP Psychology with Online Tests” by Robert McEntarffer, Allyson J. Weseley
from Barron’s AP Psychology with Online Tests
by Robert McEntarffer, Allyson J. Weseley
Barrons Educational Series, 2018

Identical twins have identical genes, so they should also have the same susceptibility to hereditary diseases; whereas fraternal twins (which originate from two separate, fertilized eggs) have no greater similarity in their heredity than brothers or sisters born at different times.

“Foods & Nutrition Encyclopedia, Two Volume Set” by Marion Eugene Ensminger, Audrey H. Ensminger
from Foods & Nutrition Encyclopedia, Two Volume Set
by Marion Eugene Ensminger, Audrey H. Ensminger
Taylor & Francis, 1993

b) Fraternal twins in same family are often different; identical twins reared apart

“Handbook of Life Sciences” by Patel, Sunil & Rukam S.Tomar
from Handbook of Life Sciences
by Patel, Sunil & Rukam S.Tomar
New India Publishing,

The differences between identical twins, who share identical DNA, and fraternal twins, whose DNA shows the same approximately 50% of overlap found in any two siblings, are particularly useful, because both types of twins share similar environments.

“Discovering Psychology: The Science of Mind” by John T. Cacioppo, Laura Freberg
from Discovering Psychology: The Science of Mind
by John T. Cacioppo, Laura Freberg
Cengage Learning, 2015

This arises because identical twins occur when a fertilised egg divides and forms two separate foetuses, which must, therefore, have the same genetic material.

“Health and Safety: Risk Management” by Tony Boyle
from Health and Safety: Risk Management
by Tony Boyle
Taylor & Francis, 2019

Identical twins (also called monozygotic twins) are twins who develop from the splitting of a single egg that was fertilized by a single sperm, and unlike other siblings, they are genetic copies of each other, sharing 100% of their genes.

“Psychology” by Daniel L. Schacter, Daniel T. Gilbert, Daniel M. Wegner
from Psychology
by Daniel L. Schacter, Daniel T. Gilbert, Daniel M. Wegner
Worth Publishers, 2010

For example, twin families include monozygotic twins (identical twins), whose genetic material (i.e., DNA) is basically identical because they developed from the same fertilized egg, or dizygotic twins (fraternal twins), who developed from two different fertilized eggs.

“Human Intelligence: An Introduction” by Robert J. Sternberg
from Human Intelligence: An Introduction
by Robert J. Sternberg
Cambridge University Press, 2019

Fraternal twins are better than full siblings for exploring associations between DNA markers and traits of interest (linkage studies) because fraternal twins are the same age and less likely to pose nonpaternity concerns—although recall that we do not know how often fraternal twins have different fathers.

“Twin Mythconceptions: False Beliefs, Fables, and Facts about Twins” by Nancy L. Segal
from Twin Mythconceptions: False Beliefs, Fables, and Facts about Twins
by Nancy L. Segal
Elsevier Science, 2017

Identical twins those originating from a single egg have exactly the same genes as each other; while fraternal, or dizygotic, twins are of no greater similarity to one another than to any other sibling from the same parents.

“The Singing Neanderthals: The Origins of Music, Language, Mind, and Body” by Steven J. Mithen
from The Singing Neanderthals: The Origins of Music, Language, Mind, and Body
by Steven J. Mithen
Harvard University Press, 2006

The twin method allows such traits to be studied based on the principle that human twins are of two basic types: monozygotic (or identical) twins, resulting from a single ovum fertilized by a single sperm, and dizygotic (or fraternal) twins, resulting from fertilization of two ova by two sperms.

“McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent E-Book” by Jeffrey A. Dean
from McDonald and Avery’s Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent E-Book
by Jeffrey A. Dean
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2015

Oktay Kutluk

Kutluk Oktay, MD, FACOG is one of the world's foremost experts in fertility preservation as well as ovarian stimulation and in vitro fertilization for infertility treatments. He developed and performed the world's first ovarian transplantation procedures as well as pioneered new ovarian stimulation protocols for embryo and oocyte freezing for breast and endometrial cancer patients.

Mail: [email protected]
Telephone: +1 (877) 492-3666

Bibliography: oktay_bibliography

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  • I saw a story, where these girls were twins, but one was white and one was black. And the father was black as the Mom is white. What do you call that? I hope I explained clearly lol

  • I’m an identical twin,… we get along ok, but this seems so unhealthy to me, on so many levels. Having no personal identity for starters then, turning your life into a sports event is unnerving.

  • I do wish my twin sister identical twin sister was here to see what it would be like but I know when shes here with me because the bond her and I had we still have even though she isn’t here. When I’m writing my hand writing changes and it’s because my twin sister loves to write as well

  • yes l am a twin and we do a lot of things the same like cooking the same go shopping the same hour we look alike and we love each other very much

  • I have male twins, which they were my little cousins. The elder twin has a large round mole on his left lower leg and the youngest twin has a tall yet slightly thin figure.. they’re both tall and thin but the older twin was much a bit chubby tho

  • I have an identical twin, we were triplets but my mom lost it b4 she even knew she was pregnant. I wonder if it would b a girl or a boy and if it was a girl would we all look alike ��

  • Awesome. There have been twins living together. I have twin step sons & they live together with their wives. There wives r not twins but they sure do look alike

  • I looked in the mirror and saw my twin. When I get married I’m going to have a big mirror so my twin will get married the same time as me.

  • My cousin has two identical twin girls. My cousin’s husband has a fraternal twin sister. Also, my friend absorbed her twin in the womb. They don’t even know if it was identical, fraternal, boy, or girl.

  • Me and my twin sister are really close….This is going to be a long story, when I was 7, I broke my arm. When it happened, my twin sister was in school, I had a day off because I was sick, my dad was in work, and my mum was looking after me. I started to feel a bit better so my mother decided to take me to a park down the road for a bit. I was climbing on top of the monkey bars (I was stupid) while my mother read a newspaper on a bench. At around 2:20pm I fell off the monkey bars and landed on my arm (breaking it). My mother rushed me to hospital. Later that day my dad went to pick my sister, Annie up from school. As SOON as she walked out of school, before my dad could tell her about me breaking my arm, my sister said ‘I had a really bad pain in my arm today, my left one.’ I had broken my left one. She told me that the pains occurred at around 2:20pm and lasted untill 3:10pm, my mother and me had gotten to the hospital at 3:00pm and the doctors had given me painkillers to ease the pain by 3:10pm. This is weird and still creeps me out till this day.

  • Kris I hope you are ok and I wishing you all the best with battle with cancer.Hope your tween sister Maren and all family is fine.Love you.God bless you.

  • I have a twin sister, but there’s been debate on whether we’re identical or fraternal. I’d like to convince myself that we’re fraternal though, since our mom is also a fraternal twin.

  • I used to be jealous of the closeness of a pair of identical twins I taught. After 50 years with my girl we have achieved the same. We ride a tandem. We wear matching clothes. More importantly we KNOW what each other is thinking at all times. A half a dozen times every day we start to say exactly the same thing at exactly the same time and laugh. I no longer have to be jealous because I do have the same bond that these girls have to each other. And it is wonderful.

  • I am a twin, and my twin sister and I live together with our husbands and my nephew. We made the choice of staying together because my twin sister has primary progressive multiple sclerosis and I am an incomplete quadraplegic, and we both have such similar symptoms, but 2 totally different diagnosis. Also, I gave birth to her and her husbands son, it was way before my accident and she would have had to go off all medication and fertility treatments to get pregnant. It just made more sense for me to have her baby, he’s almost 18 now and the youngest of our children. I have 3 great kids that are 25, 28, and 30 and she has a 31 year old daughter along with her son. We are 48 now, and have 11 grandchildren between the two of us, and unexpectedly my sister has the first great grandchild. We live on 4 acres with 7 chickens, 2 Great Danes, a chihuahua (the family cat), a poodle chihuahua rescue, and a rescue guinea pig named Steve. We have a stocked pond, and soon will be adding a 3000 square foot Aquaponic system, probably a few miniature nubian dwarf goats and maybe a few cows. Our mission is to be as self self sufficient as possible, we had solor installed the first year, and plan to add on to the system, and a battery bank with some wind power for when the weather is grim. God bless ya’ll! FAITH, HOPE AND LOVE! ��

  • Me and my twin sister are extremely close, we always cuddle and laugh and just do things very close twins would do. My family members thinks its weird how we always do this, I’m pretty sure their starting to think we’re lesbians but seriously we’re not.

  • I think that this is an exceptional beautiful story, both couples understand the strong bond they share so why wouldn’t they want to be together. This way they get to see their twin everyday and wouldn’t have to miss them or any of the memories they create together. No one has the right to comment on anybody choice of how they wish to live their lives. God bless with beautiful children.

  • Yeah I wish this video focused more on other types of twins other than identical, cause I’m a girl and I have a twin Brother so that means we are Furternal twins, I kinda was hoping I would learn more about those types of twins

  • My half sister and I have this. Different mom same dad but we absolutely have this. Ppl do think we are twins. We have been very close all our life.

  • I woke Thursday the 11th and told my spouse that my twin brother was in danger of imminent death. The next day, i received the call.

  • People without a twin will never understand the completely unique and extremely deep bond that twins share. It is truly a connection like no other. Nothing even comes close. Of course it has its downsides, but the positives greatly override the negatives. Twins are souls entwined.

  • I had a twin sister who passed away in 2016; we shared every birthday together with each other up to and including our last one just 4 months before she passed on

  • I have twin Aunt’s… & my brother has fraternal twins (a boy & girl). Genetically, it is the MOTHER that determines the TWINS… AS HER BODY IS WHAT ENABLES TWINS TO DEVELOP. (BUT NOW-A-DAYS, FERTILITY DRUGS/ TREATMENT ALSO PLAY A BIG ROLE IN THE OUTCOME OF TWINS!) That is the situation with my nephew & niece. I love them no matter the CIRCUMSTANCES!! As for my AUNT’S, MY Gramma didn’t even know she was pregnant with twins at the time. It was a complete SURPRISE!!!��������

  • what an amazing story…yet so sad for the brothers….
    really it musn’t be too long before we start toi figure out these rules that make stuff like this happen??

  • I am an identical twin. This is a true story, One day I went shopping with my mom, while my sister was at school. Around 1:30 p.m. I was feeling a terrible pain in my stomach, I thought maybe it was something I ate. That day my sister told my mom she was having gas pain in her stomach, my mom asked at what time, my sister said at the exact time I felt the pain in my stomach 1:30 p.m. Maybe it was just a coincidence? 

  • I don’t think it happens with all of them. You probably have a different brain wave than your twin. Or sometimes its just very subtle.

  • Im an identical twin we never had twin babies but her last daughter and my last daughter were born on the same month same day one year apart she was trying for a child however i was not so it was a big surprise

  • My grandparents had twin boys, my parents had twin boys, and a second boy/girl set of twins, and several other sibs, none of whom had twins. Recently my son had twin boys. Is that good enough for the Guinness Book?

  • My brothers are Fraternal twins. But they look dead on like identical twins!!! Lol yes they were born in their own sacks. & they also had their own langue! It was wired! But cool! Lol & they were lil heathens!!!! Even their own teachers couldn’t handle them! Lol they got held back! Not once! But twice!!! Form headstart!!!!

  • I believe that twins have a connection spiritually. They shared a womb for 9 months and the closeness between them is only understood by them.

  • Poor Christopher! what a touching story & I think it really is twin telepathy, God rest his soul & Andrew is a very Loving Brother! (:

  • yeah, its not just ideantical twins. my cousins are fraternal and when one got pregnant the other didnt have her period for nine months. one day i was with her and she started crying and freaking out and while i was trying to calm her down her twin called and said she was having the baby. and when they were toddlers one had to get her blood checked and when they put the needle in her arm she didnt even cry but her sister started screaming in the next room. stuff like that happend all the time

  • I have a twinbrother too, we are fraternal twins. Yes that’s true the connection with a twin and just a sibling is really different I feel closed connection with my twin brother than to my other siblings ��

  • I have a twin. My brother. We look alike, we act alike, think alike. But we both have different birthdays. Mine is july 9th 1958
    And his is. March 4th 1960.we are 1 year and 9 months apart. Lol. How is that possible you say? Mom just had two babies the y younger one who has everything the older child had. Looks, acts, attitudes, thinking, liking
    the same things. Both have golden blond hair. The only two tall kids that mom had.
    Every time we tell people we are NOT twins, they don’t believe us. ��������������������

  • I truly and honestly believe in twin telepathy, because I have experienced it first hand. I am a twin myself, the first time I experienced it was the day I had an operation to remove torn cartilage from my knees. As soon as I was put under anaesthetic, my sister passed out and was unconscious for the same time I was. I ended up walking out of the hopsital that day with no pain whatsoever.. my sister on the other hand experienced sore knees for 4 weeks..

  • All the comments are like omg congratulations! And I’m here like ewwww. They all know how to keep it in the family don’t they? Gross!

  • There is no black eye on thebother girl. They bpth have ” bag-like” eyes. Look at both the girls eyes, right and left. They are the same. These peolle are too much!

  • Im a fraternal twin. And people would think only identical twins would have telepathy and share almost the same thing. But it’s not entirely true. Even ybough me and my twin brother didny share the same cell we had situations when one us would be separated from the other and we would sharebthe same thoughts and tell each other that when we see each other again. An occasion when that happened was when i was with my dad shopping while he was with my mom at home, i dropped two whole gallons of milk on my foot (ik very stupid of me) on accident at 1:32 pm and he felt his foot ringle and hurt at the exact same time. We didnt know aboit ehat happenes to the other until i arrived and we sais the same thing at the same time. Which was:” my foot hurtes”. And our oarents looked at each other in shock.

  • I’m not a twin. but I have brothers that are twins. and one of them passed away when they were 10 months old. and my one brother that lived has been lost his whole life. he feels like there is a part of him missing. I under stand what he’s saying because I have a brother I have never got to meet. So I can imagin how he feels. other then my Mom.My grandfather was the only other person that could tell them apart. and he could by there ears.

  • I’m a twin but not identical twins and I love the fact that they want to be together, my twin sister and I are nothing alike we do everything differently accept for the amount of the children we have

  • I went to school with two sets of identical twins that married each other. One served in the Vietnam war, the other did not due to a serious hearing problem from a childhood illness. The twin that stayed home had the first child and the other married couple had their first baby exactly 2 years later on the same month and day. This continued through the birth of 3 children for both couples. When we had our 20th class reunion they were all there for the family picnic and you could not tell who belonged to who except for the fact that the children were 2 years apart. Both couples denied they had planned this.

  • imagine them having 2sets of twins. the four kids r born at the same time. if they get mixed up they will never know which is which. 4 children with the exact same dna

  • I feel like in a twin I saw on YouTube a few years ago a girl that liked exactly like me sadly I list the video and in still today trying to track down a video

  • If everything works out the way they want I would say that it is a miracle! And there’s plenty of miracles that happen every second. But I would hope that in case it didn’t happen this way that they have a therapist on call to help them resolve and issues or problems that they need to deal with maybe God has a better and different plan for all of them! GOOD LUCK!

  • Child: Hey mom can I go to a friends house?
    Girl Twin 1: Oh I’m not your mom your moms in the living room.

    Child 1.1: Hey (insert name) wanna go play outside?
    Child 1.2: I’m not (insert name). Your (insert sister/brother) is in the kitchen.
    Child 1.1:…….Ok

    (1.1 is first twin of first couple, 1.2 is first twin of second couple(if two twins have children with twins then wouldn’t their kids look similar?))

  • I Kno all about fraternal twins. It’s the Identical twins that fascinate me. ���� If I ever run into a pair we’re gone have to talk ��������

  • I’m an identical twin…we share many same traits and personalities. And when we leave each other for a long period of time, we get depressed! People often get us confused! My twin developed a tumor on the right of his neck, and I actually had one on complete opposite side.

  • twins share the same mental channel because they have similar brainwave length. the twin that got hit sent the message to the other twins brain as well as her own and the brain of the other twin reacted accordingly as if it had been hit directly

  • This was perfect except I don’t know the occupational direction of the guys. My FTO as a Florida Trooper was a Triplet, all 3 Troopers at the same time after their dad. My sister conceived twins on her honeymoon. My brother & myself measure identical and my sister who was born in the middle is just alike. I recorded my voice once and played it back at a fraction faster and it sounded identical to her. I also just had 9 husky pups 8 weeks ago this Tues. 3 sets of identical twins. White boys w/blue eyes, Light gray girls w/blue eyes, slightly darker gray boys same. The other 3 were white female w/blue, female gray w/brown & female w/a brown & blue.

  • OK, I am not a twin. But I think no matter who you are..2 sets of twins should not live together,!!!! Beside the obvious….. Kissing or sleeping with the wrong twin….a newly married couple need to be alone! They need to bond MORE… to get to know each other even better. I don’t care how much you think they know each other at first….it is so much differend when you get married. All I can say, is I hope they make it. But living alone when you first get married, works. Thats what we did. And next April, we weill be married 38 years. You should never live with another couple.!! Period!!! Lol!! Merry Christmas everyone!! �� �� �� �� ⛄ �� �� �� ��

  • I can’t imagine my sister dead, she is my best friend, my other half. We are like inseparable, always together, the thought of my sister dead brings me to tears.

  • Happy new year 2020. What an awesome God.. He is the mastermind behind it all. To God be the glory. Another perfect example that God exists and is the creator of the universe. Blessings

  • im not identacle with my twin but when i got my braces off, my sister was sitting in math class and got the weird thought that i got my braces off!! o.o and i did! and when i woke up from a terrible dream my sister walked in to my room. i asked why and she didnt know. i was freaked out O.o

  • That was a sad touching story, but theres something that bothers me about twin telepathy that seems to be common among these people. They all seem to either believe its not real, or they assume some sort of paranormal thing. Why doesn’t anyone actually just do some scientific research? Everything has an explanation, we may not know the reason yet, but there is one.

  • I am an identical twin and it’s funny because the most asked question we get is…”are you twins”
    I just look and them and say “nope, saw her on the side of the road and said what the heck not.”
    To be honest though, being a twin is awesome. Someone who is always there and always has your back. I feel special because everyone always says they wish they had a twin.
    I wouldnt give it up for the whole world.������

  • I pray that they live happily ever after and remember to keep GOD first in every thing. Even if they do get pregnant at the same time, if they seek GOD first, he will give them the desires of their heart

  • They both made a good decision to meet twins and get married but, living in the same house is a no-no. Weather twins or not, there should only be one lady in the house. Yes they love ❤️ each other and all that, but still one lady in a household #thisisjustmyopinion

  • My twins are VERY fraternal! They looked alike when they were littlenow they barely look like brothers!

  • I’m very happy the four of you were able to find one another. I wish you all the best, and good look with getting pregnant at the same time with twins. I wish you all the best. God bless you all.

  • My Mom is a Lone twin (Boy Girl) but had me and my twin sister. In 4th grade I had a feeling she was upset or hurt Squirled my way out of class found her in nurse with a fractured cheek bone. To this day I know her mood from miles away. Hard to explain. Even with mom we have a such a connection. The texting to the second of eachother etc. Brain waves connected. MAGIC.

  • I’m a twin, identical. We don’t share thoughts or feelings in the distance. But in person we can often identify what we think or feel more than non twins do, but not more than I do with my husband of over 40 years.

  • Twins shared a womb and they bonded in there, that is probably why. Twin-tuition do not only happen with identical twins, it also happens with fraternal twins.

  • I have an identical twin sister and even though we “look” “talk” “act” the same we have spent most of our lives trying not to be alike in any way, personally this is like my worst nightmare but each to our own and good luck to them all

  • Well if they want their kids to born at the same time, then they have to sleep with their man at the same time and come the same time.����

  • Sincerely, this ability (or natural skill for telepathy) ought to be genuinely studied, much further and more seriously (as per empiricism).

  • I have identical twin nieces. And they thought when I was pregnant with my daughter that she was going to be a twin.
    I just hope on the marriage license but they didn’t switch the names. Where one is actually married to her supposedly brother-in-law. That would be my luck.

  • I would advise you to do some research on this topic and try some tests, for example have someone poke you on a place with a pin and have your sister in another room try to tell where you were just poked. My theory is that your mind is communicating with both of your bodies instead of just your own. Our minds can be manipulated by electrical pulses from outside sources.

  • But isnt it crazy how twins looks the same even AFTER THEIR GROWTH SPURT?? As if to say the way we supposed to look as adults, is decided from when we are young…..

  • I am a Twin, boy and girl, I have felt her pain on three separate occasions in our lives once when we were teenagers when she fell down a flight of stairs and ended up in hospital. I woke up one morning with pain in my right knee and felt pain down the side of my face, my sister had a Saturday morning job working at a small family run business when she fell down the flight of stairs. We got the phone call from the firm saying she had been taken to hospital,. When we saw her she was injured in the same places I was feeling the pain which was very strange as I had not hurt myself and had no injury’s to show. The second time was when she became pregnant some years later a few hours before the birth I started to get pain in my stomach and it began to swell, I was working in a factory on the early shift that day, by the time the shift ended I had to make braces to hold up my jeans as I had to undo the top button and unzip the fly and I couldn’t stand upright, my stomach was huge. I thought about the time when we were young but thought don’t be daft. The baby was born that night and my pain began to subside it took a few days before the stomach returned to its normal size. The third occasion happened when two years later she became pregnant again and yes you guessed it the swelling happened again a few hours before the birth. I told my brother in law don’t have any more children I can’t stand the pain. My sister has never felt my pain over the years I,m glad to say, we are now approaching our 65th birthday.