Myelination and Tween Impulses

 

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Myelination Process and Tween Impulses. Medically reviewed by Joel Forman, MD Building Self-Esteem in Tweens. Medically reviewed by Joel Forman, MD Why Girls Use Social Exclusion.

Medically reviewed by Joel Forman, MD Developmental Needs of Middle School Students. Consistent with the myelination model, in childhood (ages 6-12), girls develop impulse inhibition and control of hyperactive behavior at a strikingly faster rate than boys, resulting in much lower rates of ADHD and conduct disorder in adolescence (Cjte et al., 2002). Myelination Process and Tween Impulses.

Medically reviewed by Joel Forman, MD Building Self-Esteem in Tweens. Medically reviewed by Joel Forman, MD Why Girls Use Social Exclusion. Medically reviewed by Joel Forman, MD Developmental Needs of Middle School Students.

tween the turns of the mesaxon leads to the fusion of the opposing plasma membranes with the formation of the major dense line of the myelin lamellae; the intraperiod line is formed by the narrowing of the mesaxon (Fig. 2). In this way, successive layers of compact myelin lamellae are manufactured, and a single myelinated internode is created. Myelin, the insulating layers of membrane wrapped around axons by oligodendrocytes, is essential for normal impulse conduction.

It forms during late stages of fetal development but continues into early adult life. Myelination correlates with cognitive development and can be regulated by impulse activity through unknown molecular mechanisms. Myelination begins at six months of gestation and continues into adulthood.

Hence, in this stage, the glial cells produce myelin. Myelin is a fatty covering that helps neural connections occur more efficiently. The Functions of the Cerebral Cortex.

Pruning, Myelination, and the Remodeling Adolescent Brain The brain rewires during adolescence to increase integration and efficiency. Posted Feb 04, 2014. The velocity of nerve conduction is moderately enhanced by larger axonal diameters and potently sped up by myelination of axons.

Myelination thus allows rapid impulse propagation with reduced. Other changes in the brain during adolescence include a rapid increase in the connections between the brain cells and making the brain pathways more effective. Nerve cells develop myelin, an insulating layer that helps cells communicate.

All these changes are essential for the development of coordinated thought, action, and behavior. An axon that is myelinated can conduct electrical impulses up to 100 times faster than an unmyelinated one. Moreover, myelination allows the axon to recover more quickly after firing—a feature that, combined with the quicker firing, represents a 3,000-fold increase in the nerve fiber’s bandwidth.

List of related literature:

Recent studies have, however, provided strong evidence that the onset of myelination is regulated through direct interactions between oligodendrocytes and their adjacent axons.

“Patterning and Cell Type Specification in the Developing CNS and PNS: Comprehensive Developmental Neuroscience” by John Rubenstein, Pasko Rakic
from Patterning and Cell Type Specification in the Developing CNS and PNS: Comprehensive Developmental Neuroscience
by John Rubenstein, Pasko Rakic
Elsevier Science, 2013

The relative contributions of synaptic maturation and increased myelination (see later) to the development of phase locking have not been assessed.

“Fetal and Neonatal Physiology” by Richard A. Polin, Steven H. Abman, William W. Fox
from Fetal and Neonatal Physiology
by Richard A. Polin, Steven H. Abman, William W. Fox
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2011

Myelination continues during early childhood (see Chapter 3).

“Human Development” by D. A. Louw
from Human Development
by D. A. Louw
Kagiso Tertiary, 1998

Myelination of the peripheral fibers progresses earlier and more rapidly than that of the central pathways (Gilles et al., 1983).

“Evoked Potentials in Clinical Medicine” by Keith H. Chiappa
from Evoked Potentials in Clinical Medicine
by Keith H. Chiappa
Lippincott-Raven, 1997

Myelination of the association neocortex extends to 30 years of age.

“Embryology” by Ronald W. Dudek, James D. Fix
from Embryology
by Ronald W. Dudek, James D. Fix
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005

Myelination continues through childhood into adolescence.

“Life Span Motor Development” by Kathleen Haywood, Kathleen M. Haywood, Nancy Getchell
from Life Span Motor Development
by Kathleen Haywood, Kathleen M. Haywood, Nancy Getchell
Human Kinetics, 2019

First, myelination brackets stages in behavioral development only in the most global sense, i.e., it takes place somewhere between 0-18 years.

“Rethinking Innateness: A Connectionist Perspective on Development” by Jeffrey L. Elman, Elizabeth A. Bates, Mark H. Johnson, Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Kim Plunkett, Domenico Parisi
from Rethinking Innateness: A Connectionist Perspective on Development
by Jeffrey L. Elman, Elizabeth A. Bates, et. al.
A Bradford Book, 1996

This maturing motor control is due to greater myelination.

“Neuroanatomy for Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology” by Matthew H Rouse
from Neuroanatomy for Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology
by Matthew H Rouse
Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2019

It is interesting to note that increased complexity in children’s movement skills is possible following myelination.

“Developmental Physical Education for All Children” by David L. Gallahue, Frances Cleland Donnelly
from Developmental Physical Education for All Children
by David L. Gallahue, Frances Cleland Donnelly
Human Kinetics, 2007

This two-peak potential has been attributed to differences in maturation between two groups of sensory fibers (16) and often persists until 4–6 years of age.

“Pediatric Rehabilitation: Principles & Practice” by Michael A. Alexander, MD, Dennis J. Matthews, MD
from Pediatric Rehabilitation: Principles & Practice
by Michael A. Alexander, MD, Dennis J. Matthews, MD
Springer Publishing Company, 2009

Oktay Kutluk

Kutluk Oktay, MD, FACOG is one of the world's foremost experts in fertility preservation as well as ovarian stimulation and in vitro fertilization for infertility treatments. He developed and performed the world's first ovarian transplantation procedures as well as pioneered new ovarian stimulation protocols for embryo and oocyte freezing for breast and endometrial cancer patients.

Mail: [email protected]
Telephone: +1 (877) 492-3666

Biography: https://medicine.yale.edu/profile/kutluk_oktay/
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6 comments

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  • I read somewhere that dinosaurs didn’t have myelin, which would make them slow to react to most stimuli.
    Odd that, since fish have it and modern birds have it.
    Also we don’t have many fossilised dinosaur brains to study, so why would anyone claim dinosaurs didn’t have schwann cells?

  • why does the action potential slow down at areas where the axon is not myelinated (nodes of ranvier)? As in I get that it has something to do with sodium ions leaving the cell, but why would they? Can u clarify, please?

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  • I compare this process to a wave in a sports arena. Starting the wave represents the initiation of the action potential. It takes each person time to get up, stand and sit back down (each person being a stand-in, erk bad pun, for those slow-acting voltage gated sodium channels). If every 10th person gets up instead the wave will get around the arena faster than if every person waves. A possible way to test this experiment mythbuster style would be to do a wave normally as the control, then repeat the process but with people in the in-between seats blindfolded (so they won’t see and won’t get up for the wave). The blindfolds represent the effect of the myelin sheath.

  • Does action potential occur within the dendrites? If so, how does the cell body channel that electric current? Wouldn’t the electricity destroy the cell body?

  • Thank u…awesome explanation
    But I have a simple question…
    Does the nodes of ranveir contain potassium channels for repolirization that occurs after the action potential is moving away from this node to the next node??